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St Inwinkl P.B.,International School of Law and Business
European Energy and Environmental Law Review | Year: 2011

The Swedish government encourages the development of electricity produced from renewable sources using an electricity certificates system. The system is regulated in the Swedish Electricity Certificates Act (lag (2003:113) om elcertifikat). The regulation imposes a penalty fee on producers for those that have received certificates grounded on incorrect or misleading information. Once the penalty fee has been charged, the legislation does not allow any adjustments, even in the case of an unjustified penalty. This article addresses the question whether this scheme is compatible with art. 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights (the Convention). It is concluded that the penalty fee how it is regulated in the Electricity Certificates Act is not in conformity with the Convention and therefore does not comply with EU law. Regulatory changes are needed in the sense that the Electricity Certificates Act has to take into account any reasons for reducing a penalty fee. Source

Vasiliauskas A.V.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University | Vilkelis A.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University | Zinkeviciute V.,International School of Law and Business | Batarliene N.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Transport | Year: 2010

The days when a buyer was forced to choose from what is being offered have passed. These days, buyers demand a product that would answer their exclusive expectations at a time of their preference and at an acceptable price. Therefore, manufacturers aiming to survive the competition battle have to rethink their operation strategies. Special importance is attached to the process of development and reconstruction of supply chains, and the process which may feature particularities, depending on the branch of industry. Automobile manufacturing is the biggest the fastest industry developing across the globe. New automobiles are listed as luxury commodities and are, therefore, subjected to very strict requirements with regard to various logistic operations and technologies, which are vital for ensuring efficient automobile delivery to the final users. Due to the growing demand for brand-new automobiles and the distance to the user, automobile manufacturers are constantly searching for solutions to the development and support of an efficient distribution network. Strategy shaping of distribution network requires evaluation of a number of criteria, which influence the distribution system. The article analyzes the development of automobile distribution networks on the basis of multi-criteria evaluation of distribution channels. Source

Daubariene J.,Vilnius University | Valiuskevicius G.,Vilnius University | Asijaviciute V.,International School of Law and Business
8th International Conference on Environmental Engineering, ICEE 2011 | Year: 2011

Functional usage of lakes is the usage of lake shores and water area in order to meet different needs of people. A lot of factors influence the suitability of a lake for certain activities, i.e. geographical position of a lake, water quality, legal regulations, morphometric indexes of lakes etc. The aim of this research is to investigate which morphometric characteristics have impact on the possibilities of functional usage of a lake. The following morphometric parameters have been analysed in this research: lake area, average and maximum depth, the length and indentation of a shoreline, the number of islands and water capacity. This research will also investigate which of these morphometric parameters mostly influences and how it influences such areas of usage of lakes as fishery and fishing, navigations, water supply for people and industry, hydroenergetics and recreation. The object of the research is all Lithuanian lakes bigger than 0.5 ha (total 2,835 lakes). Based on the research of various scientists and legal acts, it was determined which morphometric parameters have the biggest influence on the usage of lakes in a specific area. After grouping the lakes according to the value of morphometric parameters the number of Lithuanian lakes which can perform specific functions was found out. It was established that the functional use of a lake mainly depends on the area of a lake. This directly and indirectly determines the possibilities of a lake usage in all the areas investigated. © Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2011. Source

Vitkunas R.,International School of Law and Business | Meidute I.,Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Transport | Year: 2011

The segment of transport is a significant part of social and economic infrastructure and has a direct impact on certain economic or social territory development. It is known that production and/or trading scale development in a specific territory leads to increased requirements for infrastructure as well as to arising environmental protection issues. Therefore, this paper addresses a very significant problem of constantly increasing vehicle numbers that decrease the permeability of roads and increase traffic jams, which consequently, have an impact on the pollution of the environment. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate bypasses and high-speed streets based on data on Vilnius City using the multi-criteria evaluation method and to verify the hypothesis of the authors. Copyright © 2011 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) Press Technika. Source

Tamburrini G.,International School of Law and Business | Butakov S.,Concordia University College of Alberta
Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology | Year: 2014

IParadigms, a company involved in plagiarism detection, was hold not liable for the unauthorized use and archival of students' papers. Both the District and Appellate Courts of Virginia, in fact, maintained that the exception of fair use applied to the copyright infringement action. As the relevant facts represent a novelty in case law, it might plausible the hypothesis that iParadigms precedent is not going to be followed in forthcoming cases. This investigation is an attempt to appreciate the possibilities that such an event could happen. In particular, the attention is focused on the special nature of the Copyright Act which is simultaneously backed by opposite theoretical backgrounds such as utilitarianism and moral desert as well as personhood theories, among others. The prevailing of one theory over another shall depend on how liberally or strictly the fair use doctrine shall be interpreted. Despite findings demonstrate judges have applied the fair use doctrine according to the correct conceptions of justice, the discussion ends up recommending a new system of plagiarism detection that drastically reduces the likelihood of copyright infringement actions. © 2014 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works. Source

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