International School for Advanced Studies

www.sissa.it/
Trieste, Italy

The International School for Advanced Studies is an international, state supported, post graduate teaching and research institute with a special statute, located in Trieste, Italy.Instituted in 1978, SISSA's aim is to promote science and knowledge, particularly in the areas of Mathematics, Physics and Neuroscience. Each year about 70 Ph.D. students are admitted to SISSA based on their scientific qualifications. SISSA also runs, in collaboration with the University of Trieste, a master programme in mathematics.SISSA has the following research areas: Astroparticle Physics Astrophysics Condensed Matter Molecular and Statistical Biophysics Statistical Physics Theoretical Particle Physics Cognitive Neuroscience Neurobiology Applied Mathematics Geometry Mathematical Analysis Mathematical PhysicsIn addition, there is the Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Advanced Studies SISSA enjoys special teaching and scientific links with the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology and the Elettra .SISSA is an essential component of the Trieste System, the grouping of national and international scientific institutes that make Trieste the "City of Science."The School provides the following services to students and members of other scientific institutions in the Trieste area: Specialised Mathematics and Physics Library; Parallel Calculus Centre; Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory; Neurophysiology and Confocal Microscopy Laboratory; Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory.In 1986 SISSA was endowed with an Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Natural and Human science, which has the task of exploring new research fields and links between scientific disciplines. It has the autonomy of a department and is organised in various research sectors. It currently offers a Master’s Degree in Scientific Communication and a Master's Degree in Digital Science Journalism.Since July 13, 2010 the campus has been located near Opicina, in the site of the former Santorio Santorio center for pneumology , where it is easily accessible by Opicina tramway.Up to 2010 SISSA administrative offices and all research sectors were located near the Miramare Park, about 10 kilometres from the city of Trieste. The Miramare scientific still hosts the ICTP and the Department of Theoretical Physics of the University of Trieste. Wikipedia.

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DiCarlo J.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Zoccolan D.,International School for Advanced Studies | Rust N.,University of Pennsylvania
Neuron | Year: 2012

Mounting evidence suggests that 'core object recognition,' the ability to rapidly recognize objects despite substantial appearance variation, is solved in the brain via a cascade of reflexive, largely feedforward computations that culminate in a powerful neuronal representation in the inferior temporal cortex. However, the algorithm that produces this solution remains poorly understood. Here we review evidence ranging fromindividual neurons and neuronal populations to behavior and computational models. We propose that understanding this algorithm will require using neuronal and psychophysical data to sift through many computational models, each based on building blocks of small, canonical subnetworks with a common functional goal. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: SGA-RIA | Phase: FETFLAGSHIP | Award Amount: 89.00M | Year: 2016

This project is the second in the series of EC-financed parts of the Graphene Flagship. The Graphene Flagship is a 10 year research and innovation endeavour with a total project cost of 1,000,000,000 euros, funded jointly by the European Commission and member states and associated countries. The first part of the Flagship was a 30-month Collaborative Project, Coordination and Support Action (CP-CSA) under the 7th framework program (2013-2016), while this and the following parts are implemented as Core Projects under the Horizon 2020 framework. The mission of the Graphene Flagship is to take graphene and related layered materials from a state of raw potential to a point where they can revolutionise multiple industries. This will bring a new dimension to future technology a faster, thinner, stronger, flexible, and broadband revolution. Our program will put Europe firmly at the heart of the process, with a manifold return on the EU investment, both in terms of technological innovation and economic growth. To realise this vision, we have brought together a larger European consortium with about 150 partners in 23 countries. The partners represent academia, research institutes and industries, which work closely together in 15 technical work packages and five supporting work packages covering the entire value chain from materials to components and systems. As time progresses, the centre of gravity of the Flagship moves towards applications, which is reflected in the increasing importance of the higher - system - levels of the value chain. In this first core project the main focus is on components and initial system level tasks. The first core project is divided into 4 divisions, which in turn comprise 3 to 5 work packages on related topics. A fifth, external division acts as a link to the parts of the Flagship that are funded by the member states and associated countries, or by other funding sources. This creates a collaborative framework for the entire Flagship.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETOPEN-01-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 3.75M | Year: 2017

ByAxon is devoted to the development of a new generation of sensors and electrodes based on nanotechnology materials for neural interfacing. We aim to design and build a prototype of an active implant that could work directly at the spinal cord (SC) level. This implant will be primary focused on restoring the transmission of electrical signals in the injured SC, acting as an active local bypass, something not possible with current technology. Further applications might include deep brain stimulation or retinal implants, among others. Current neural interfacing approaches are based on detecting electric potentials at the brain level, and/or triggering functional electrical stimulation (FES) through electrodes at muscular or SC levels. Important present drawbacks are the large number of cables and electrodes they require and, specially, the lack of sensory feedback. The ultimate non-contact sensing devices (magnetoencephalography) detect magnetic-field pulses generated by potentials at the brain, but require cryogenic temperatures, and, hence, are not portable. We will exploit here the enhanced properties of nanostructured materials to develop improved room temperature magnetoresistance-based high-resolution magnetic sensors. This will allow tackling not only the brain but also the SC directly. We pursuit a novel integrated interface comprising both sensing and stimulation at the SC level. To reach this aim, we will develop FES electrodes of enhanced adhesion and efficiency by using nanowire coatings. ByAxon is supported by an interdisciplinary consortium, going from material scientists and electronic experts to biologists and clinicians. Our nanotechnology-based approach offers a novel perspective and will be complementary to, but independent from, present neural regenerative techniques. Our technology promises significant outcomes towards the development of an active local bypass and it has the potential to provide much-needed breakthroughs in future neuromedicine.


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: COMPET-05-2015 | Award Amount: 2.18M | Year: 2016

Understanding the Physics of Inflation is one of the key questions in present-day fundamental cosmology. For this purpose, the study of the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies provide a unique probe to the early Universe. However, it is well-known that foreground signals, and in particular emission from our Galaxy, will be the major limiting factor of the possible constraints on the existence of B-modes. This proposal will make use of ESAs PLANCK satellite mission (30-857 GHz), in combination with the ground-based observations provided by the QUIJOTE experiment (10-20 GHz) and other ancillary radio maps, to address the still open problem of the detailed physical modelling of the radio foregrounds in polarization. This project will provide: a) state-of-the-art legacy maps of the synchrotron and the anomalous microwave emission (AME) in the Northern sky; b) a detailed characterization of the synchrotron spectral index, and the implications for cosmic-rays electron physics; c) a model of the large-scale properties of the Galactic magnetic field; d) a detailed characterization of the AME, including its contribution in polarization; and e) the best complete and statistically significant multi-frequency catalogue (from 10 to 217 GHz) of radio sources in both temperature and polarization. The combination of PLANCK and QUIJOTE will provide reference data products which will be an asset for other sub-orbital experiments, as well as in the preparation of future space missions. Finally, we will also provide specific software tools for a more efficient exploitation of our data products, with functionalities far beyond of the existing ones. These tools will not only allow an advanced visualization, but also they will allow the possibility of carrying out specific predictions/simulations for the design of future B-mode experiments, which we expect it will be widely used by the Cosmology and Astrophysics community.

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