International Sakharov Environmental University
Minsk, Belarus

International Sakharov Environmental University is a university in Minsk, Belarus.The university offers both undergraduate and graduate degrees. As on February, 2011 1,273 full time students were enrolled. Wikipedia.

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Gusakova O.,International Sakharov Environmental University | Shepelevich V.,Belarussian State University
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

The results on the grain structure and texture of tin and tin-based foils produced by ultrafast quenching from the melt are presented in this work. The formation of fine equiaxed and large grains elongated along the spreading direction of the foil was observed. Detailed studies of subgrain structure showed that the crystallographic orientation of elongated grains changes monotonically within the grain. It can be assumed that the reason for the change of crystallographic orientation is the deformation of solidified material. The deformation is caused by the viscous force of undercooled melt which moves above the crystallization front in the direction of the foil spreading. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Troyanchuk I.O.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Bushinsky M.V.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Dobryanskii V.M.,Belarusian State Agrarian Technical University | Pushkarev N.V.,International Sakharov Environmental University
JETP Letters | Year: 2011

In layered Sr 3YCo 4O 10.5 + δ-type cobaltites with different oxygen contents, we have observed a first order magnetic phase transition from the high-temperature "ferromagnetic" state to the low-temperature antiferromagnetic state. The transition can be induced by an applied magnetic field. It is accompanied by a significant hysteresis in the magnetic field (~10 T) and temperature (~10 K). A decrease and an increase in the yttrium content lead to a purely "ferromagnetic" and antiferromagnetic behavior, respectively. © 2011 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Popoff E.H.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Kapich A.N.,International Sakharov Environmental University
International Journal of Radiation Biology | Year: 2010

Purpose: The aims of this work were: (i) To compare the effects of ionising radiation (IR) on testosterone binding globulin (TeBG) characteristics (serum concentration, cooperativity of androgen binding and affinity for hormone) in divergent mammalian species; (ii) to couple radiation effects with probable TeBG-parameter changes; and (iii) to investigate the prevention of these changes by fungal preparations (in particular by lipid polyene complexes of Laetiporus sulphureus). Materials and methods: Characteristics of TeBG were investigated in microaliquots of rat and human serum samples using [3H]-5α- dihydrotestosterone ([3H]-DHT) radioligand assays after invivo exposures to IR (external γ-sources, incorporation of 131I-, 137Cs-radionuclides) at experimental and post-Chernobyl radioecological conditions (doses 0.252.2 Gy). Results: Species-specific changes of TeBG parameters were found depending on the type of IR, dose and time after irradiation. Specifically children living in radionuclide contaminated regions (near Chernobyl) were found to have a decrease of positive cooperativity for the TeBG-androgen binding, a drop of TeBG levels, and a decline in hormone affinity. Screening of natural substances (from phanerogams and fungi) detected that lipid polyene complexes of the basidiomycete L. sulphureus allowed recovery of the standard features of TeBG. Conclusions: IR induced a depletion of TeBG from blood simultaneously with species-specific changes of TeBG, which depend on the type of radiation, the dose of radiation (from 0.25 up to 2.2 Gy), and the time after radiation. The Hill coefficient of TeBG (indicating the degree of molecular cooperativity when hormone binding) appeared to be the most radiosensitive marker of the glycoprotein activity because of it is inversely to radiation dose. There are pharmacological possibilities to restore IR-induced "declines" of TeBG's affinity and cooperativity for androgen ligand binding. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.

Khasanov O.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Smirnova T.,International Sakharov Environmental University | Fedotova O.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Rusetsky G.,National Academy of Sciences of Belarus | Romanov O.,Belarusian State University
Applied Optics | Year: 2012

The nonlinear dynamics of a high-power femtosecond singular pulse in Kerr media are analyzed numerically upon optically induced ionization. We examine the plasma inertia impact to stable propagation of optical vortices. Multifoci behavior of vortices in medium are revealed. Next we numerically demonstrate that inertial character of plasma formation provides a quasi-soliton regime of vortex propagation resistant to symmetry-breaking perturbation. © 2012 Optical Society of America.

Kapich A.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kapich A.N.,University of Helsinki | Kapich A.N.,International Sakharov Environmental University | Korneichik T.V.,International Sakharov Environmental University | And 2 more authors.
Enzyme and Microbial Technology | Year: 2010

Unsaturated fatty acids have been proposed to mediate the oxidation of recalcitrant, non-phenolic lignin structures by fungal manganese peroxidases (MnP), but their precise role remains unknown. We investigated the oxidizability of three fatty acids with varying degrees of polyunsaturation (linoleic, linolenic, and arachidonic acids) by measuring conjugated dienes formation when lipid peroxidation was initiated either by MnP in the presence of Mn(II) or by chelated Mn(III). An inverse relationship between the degree of fatty acid unsaturation and the rate of peroxidation was found in both cases, but we also noted some differences between the two types of reaction. With MnP/Mn(II), the reaction developed slowly and resulted in sustained lipid peroxidation as determined by the formation of late-stage fatty acid degradation products. By contrast, the reaction with chelated Mn(III) was very rapid and did not result in the formation of these late-stage products, which suggests that this system failed to propagate the sustained radical chain reaction that is characteristic of complete lipid peroxidation. All three polyunsaturated fatty acids supported the co-oxidation of a non-phenolic lignin model compound by MnP, again showing an inverse relationship between the degree of unsaturation and reactivity, but chelated Mn(III) by itself supported only very low levels of fatty acid-mediated lignin model oxidation. These parallels in fatty acid reactivity are consistent with a reaction scheme in which Mn(III) acts as the proximal oxidant that initiates lipid peroxidation by MnP, thus generating fatty acid-derived radicals which in turn oxidize lignin structures. However, the results also suggest that the initial peroxyl radicals formed may not be the ligninolytic oxidants in this system. Instead, other radical oxidants produced during late-stage reactions of lipid peroxidation may be required. © 2009 Elsevier Inc.

Kapich A.N.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Kapich A.N.,University of Helsinki | Kapich A.N.,International Sakharov Environmental University | Korneichik T.V.,International Sakharov Environmental University | And 2 more authors.
Enzyme and Microbial Technology | Year: 2011

The peroxidation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids by fungal manganese peroxidase (MnP)/Mn(II) and by chelated Mn(III) was studied with application of three different methods: by monitoring oxygen consumption, by measuring conjugated dienes and by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formation. All tested polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were oxidized by MnP in the presence of Mn(II) ions but the rate of their oxidation was not directly related to degree of their unsaturation. As it has been shown by monitoring oxygen consumption and conjugated dienes formation the linoleic acid was the most easily oxidizable fatty acid for MnP/Mn(II) and chelated Mn(III). However, when the lipid peroxidation (LPO) activity was monitored by TBARS formation the linolenic acid gave the highest results. High accumulation of TBARS was also recorded during peroxidation of linoleic acid initiated by MnP/Mn(II). Action of Mn(III)-tartrate on the PUFAs mimics action of MnP in the presence of Mn(II) indicating that Mn(III) ions are involved in LPO initiation. Although in our experiments Mn(III) tartrate gave faster than MnP/Mn(II) initial oxidation of the unsaturated fatty acids with consumption of O 2 and formation of conjugated dienes the process was not productive and did not support further development of LPO. The higher effectiveness of MnP/Mn(II)-initiated LPO system depends on the turnover of manganese provided by MnP. It is proposed that the oxygen consumption assay is the best express method for evaluation of MnP- and Mn(III)-initiated peroxidation of C18 unsaturated fatty acids. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

Vishneuskaya Y.A.,International Sakharov Environmental University
Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy | Year: 2012

The main trends of the bioethics development in Belarus have been analyzed on the basis of the materials collected by the Ethics Documentation Center (ISEU, Minsk, Belarus). A critical review of the most important publications in the field since 2000 suggests that development of bioethics in Belarus has occurred in two parallel directions distantly connected to each other: a theoretical direction and a practical one. Despite there are objective and subjective reasons for introducing bioethics in Belarus as an institutionally-organized system based on liberal values such as individual rights and freedom, a range of essential problems could be identified. Non-equivalent regulation of ethical issues in health care and other fields of biomedical research has been emphasized, as well as the problem of unclear hierarchical relationships among institutions dealing with various aspects of bioethics in the country and low ethical and educational level of the social and professional groups involved in further expansion of bioethical knowledge. The contextual aspects of the development of bioethics in the country such as the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster, the prevalence of the authoritarian social morality and traditionally paternalistic nature of the relations between physicians and their patients are discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Korneichik T.V.,International Sakharov Environmental University | Kapich A.N.,International Sakharov Environmental University
Moscow University Biological Sciences Bulletin | Year: 2011

Cultural filtrates obtained by a solid-state cultivation of wood-decaying white rot basidiomycetes Bjerkandera adusta BIMF-260 and Pleurotus ostreatus BIMF-247 demonstrate a prooxidant activity expressed via their ability to initiate the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly linoleic acid. This prooxidant activity depends on the presence of ligninolytic enzymes, especially ligninolytic peroxidases. © 2011 Allerton Press, Inc.

Kalinin M.,International Sakharov Environmental University
NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security | Year: 2012

In 2008 the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP) introduced the map of transboundary aquifers. The map gives the general view where transboundary aquifer occur, unfortunately not all aquifers were identified. Further efforts are needed to extend the knowledge in this field. In the paper the main aquifers and aquifers systems in Belarus were charcterised. There are five main water pressurized systems in the national territory of Belarus that are widely used for the purpose of general water supply: Quaternary, Palaeogene, Albian-Cenomanian, Devonian and the Upper Proterozoic. Base on the available information the attempt to identify regions of transboundary groundwater flow occurrence were taken. Because of the lack of sufficient date in that field the detailed study of hydrogeological condition in indicated areas are recommended to achieve bilateral cooperation and sustainable use of aquifers. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012.

News Article | July 4, 2014

Victor Gaydack is now in his 70s and lives in a Kiev suburb. In April 1986 he was a major in the Russian army, on duty when reactor four at Chernobyl exploded. He was one of tens of thousands of fit, young “liquidators” sent in from all over the Soviet Union to try to make safe the stricken reactor. Since the accident, Gaydack has suffered two heart attacks, and developed severe stomach cancer. Who is to say that Gaydack’s conditions were not caused by the accident or would have happened without the explosion? Or that the many mentally disabled Belarussian children and the thousands of people born in the fallout region who today suffer from thyroid cancers and congenital diseases were not also Chernobyl victims? Estimates of the eventual deaths, cancers, heart diseases, ailments and malformations that will eventually result from the accident vary enormously and are still bitterly contested by scientists. What is certain is that about 350,000 people like Gaydack were evacuated and resettled from the high-level 2,600 square kilometre contamination zone that stretches from Ukraine into Belarus and Russia. It is certain, too, that the accident cost tens of billions of dollars in today’s money and that the area around the plant will be psychologically cursed for hundreds, if not tens of thousands of years. What has been less understood however is that Chernobyl changed the course of the world’s history and that its long shadow will hang over nuclear power for centuries. In an essay in National Geographic photographer Gerd Ludwig’s new book of the aftermath of the accident, Mikhail Gorbachev, the last president of the Soviet Union and on whose watch Chernobyl occurred, makes it clear - not for the first time - that the accident greatly accelerated the end of Soviet Union. There’s no photograph of Gorbachev, but there is one of Gaydack, in his flat watching, horrified, as the Fukushima disaster unfolds on television 26 years later. There are also plenty of heartbreaking images of children without limbs, dramatic shots of the physical disaster in the belly of the stricken reactor and the wild world that has been left beyond ground zero. “It is virtually impossible to connect specific illnesses to particular causes, but there is no doubt that the families and the doctors who work with the sufferers in radiation hospitals and who are brave enough to speak out have good reason to blame the disaster,” says Ludwig, who has documented the world’s worst nuclear disaster in nine visits over 20 years. “Women exposed to the fallout as children have now reached childbearing age and fear giving birth to babies with congenital defects, worrying how radiation may have affected their genes. While some in the scientific community question that birth defects and retardation are directly attributable to the disaster, noted scientist Alexei Okeanov [of the International Sakharov Environmental University in Minsk, Belarus] calls it ‘a fire that can’t be put out in our lifetimes’.” Workers enter the so-called diarator stack, where they drill holes in the concrete to install support beams that are supposed to stabilise the outward leaning western wall which is in danger of collapsing. Their dark workspace is located close to the centre of the explosion and is so highly contaminated that they can only work in 15-minute shifts despite wearing highly protective gear and respirators. Entombing the radiation, a brick wall blocks the entrance to the control room of reactor four, where the fatal mistake occurred. It created a safer passage for workers who have to walk through the area. After the Chernobyl nuclear accident, a concrete and steel encasement, the so-called sarcophagus, was hastily erected to contain the radioactive remnants inside the failed reactor. Only intended to be temporary, it is leaky and structurally unsound. Scientists agree that it will ultimately give way, shaking loose enough radioactivity to cause a second disaster of even greater magnitude. A radiation sign along a road near Pripyat warns of radiation. The tranquility of the sight on an evening of heavy snowfall belies the lingering danger looming in the peaceful winter landscape. On April 26, 1986 at 1:23 am, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant's reactor number four blew up after operators botched a safety test, triggering the world's worst nuclear disaster to date. The nuclear accident at the in Ukraine contaminated thousands of square kilometres, forcing 150,000 inhabitants within an area now known as the exclusion zone to hastily abandon their homes. At the Thyroid Centre in Minsk, surgery is performed on a daily basis. Amongst the patients in room #4 was Dima Bogdanovich, 13, who had just undergone his first surgery for thyroid cancer, and liquidator Oleg Shapiro, 54. He was exposed to high doses of radiation while remanteling small wooden homes in the villages close to the reactor. His commission was originally for six months. Blood tests were administered after three months and the workers were mysteriously sent home. Oleg says that out of the 300 workers in his brigade, one-third have since died. He himself has already been through three thyroid operations. Despite scientific dispute over the cause of physical malformations, many homes in Belarus receive support from Chernobyl aid programmes funded by various international aid organisations around the world. Activist Adi Roche, is an Irish woman who founded the organisation, Chernobyl Children, and produced the 2004 Academy Award-winning documentary on Chernobyl victims called Chernobyl Heart. Adi has made the care of Chernobyl victims the centre of her life. Her organisation gives major help to the children's home in Vesnova, which cares for 150 abandoned and orphaned children with severe mental and physical disabilities. Some pictures show children with lesser disabilities harvesting fields and taking care of farm animals to produce food for the home. We helped Ludmila Kirichenko, 49, her daughter Tatyana, 22 and their friend Ludmila Shapovalova, 55 to be allowed to privately visit their former hometown of Prypyat. It was only the second time that Shapovalova came to Prypyat since she had to leave 19 years ago. Together they visited the graveyard, the kindergarten, the hospital where both women gave birth, both of their apartments and the Polissia Hotel. In between they stopped for a picnic in the main square. 92-year-old Kharytina Descha is one of the few elderly people who have returned to their village homes inside the exclusion zone. Although surrounded by devastation and isolation, she prefers to die on her own soil. As she has difficulties walking and hearing she does not have much communication with anybody in the village but seems to be quite content with her situation. After the catastrophe, close to 100,000 inhabitants who lived in villages inside the 30km zone were evacuated. Ignoring radiation levels, a (now diminishing) number of elderly people have returned to their homes. At first Ukrainian officials discouraged them, but soon they turned a blind eye. When Soviet authorities finally ordered the evacuation, the residents' hasty departure often meant leaving behind their most personal belongings. The Soviet Union only admitted to the world that an accident had occurred two days after the explosion, when the nuclear cloud reached Sweden and scientists there noticed contamination on their shoes before entering their own nuclear power plant. Victor Gaydak, 70, liquidator of the Chernobyl accident, is watching the news from the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan. A major in the military, he was on duty when the explosion occurred. Following the disaster he had two heart attacks, and developed severe stomach cancer. Evacuated from Pripyat, he now lives with his family in Troeschina, a suburb of Kiev, where more than 30% of the population are people relocated after the Chernobyl accident. An estimated 800,000 people, called liquidators participated in containing the Chernobyl disaster, cleaning up after the accident, and building the sarcophagus around the destroyed reactor. Most liquidators received high doses of radiation resulting in cancers and other diseases induced by their exposure, often only showing up decades after the event. The empty school rooms in Prypyat- once the largest town in the zone with 49,000 inhabitants - are being taken over by nature. On April 26, 1986, the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine contaminated thousands of square miles, forcing 150.000 inhabitants within a 30km zone to hastily abandon their homes. Nineteen years later, the still empty school and kindergarten rooms in Prypyat- once the largest town in the zone with 49.000 inhabitants bear witness to the sudden and tragic departure. • This article was amended on 9 July 2014 to remove incorrect information about cesium 127.

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