Yao Y.,Environment Canada |
Volchek K.,Environment Canada |
Lambert P.,Environment Canada |
Brown C.E.,Environment Canada |
And 5 more authors.
Proceedings of the 37th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response
This review presents the environmental consequences resulting from the severe accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi (2011) and Chernobyl (1986) nuclear power plants. It focuses on the transport of radionuclides and the subsequent effects on biota. Tlie radionuclides of concern in the long-term remediation phase are 137Cs and 90Sr. and to a lesser extent 134Cs, primarily because of their longer half-lives and their representativeness of other fission products released from fuel failures during a nuclear accident. The Fukushima accident resulted in large amounts of radionuclides being released to the Pacific Ocean or captured in wastewater contained on-site, wrhile the release in Chernobyl was dominantly airborne and unmitigated. The atmospheric deposition of 137Cs has been observed as a marker radionuclide at distances within 250 km and 1.700 km post-accident from the Fukushima and Chernobyl reactors, respectively. Following deposition, the concentration of radionuclides in soil decreases with depth, with the majority of radionuclides residing within 0 tolO cm from the surface. The studies performed following the Chernobyl accident showed that there were no adverse radiation-induced effects in biota when absorbed dose was less than 0.3 Gy within the first month after the accident. In biota that received higher doses, radiation-related acute effects haw been observed including increased mortality, reproductive losses, chronic radiation syndrome, and induced mutations. In surface water, radionuclide concentration declines rapidly due to dilution and adsorption onto catchment soils and bottom sediments. The main source of long-term contamination within the aquatic environment could stem from the leaching of contaminated soils. Without sufficient remediation, contamination of 137Cs and 90Sr in soil will last for a long time. The evacuation zone at Chernobyl is still one of the most contaminated areas globally, with soil concentrations of 137Cs up to 75 MBq/m2. The paper also discusses recovery actions aiming at the remediation of radiologically contaminated soil and water. Soil remediation technologies include heating, separation- And acid-based techniques, plowing, weeding, fertilization, surface solidification and removal of contaminated soil. Methods to remediate surface wrater include construction of catchments allowing for collection and purification of contaminated water. There are several knowledge gaps regarding remediation measures, the resolution of wilich wrould inform decision-making and enhance preparedness in case such an event were to occur in Canada. Source
Rodrigues M.,International Safety Research Inc. |
Chaput J.,International Safety Research Inc. |
Bellman C.,International Safety Research Inc. |
Cousins T.,International Safety Research Inc.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry
A workshop to discuss Canada's preparedness to properly manage and treat children during radiological/nuclear (R/N) events was held in Ottawa, Canada, on 1-2 June 2010. This workshop provided a platform for participants of varied backgrounds including medicine, radiological and nuclear physics as well as child care, to discuss the strength and shortcoming of the currently implemented practices and procedures in Canada for the treatment and management of contaminated and/or exposed children during R/N events. To aid this discussion, scenarios (vignettes) involving the malicious use of radiological material were presented and discussed from the perspective of the emergency response focusing specifically on children. From these discussions, it was concluded that the management of children during R/N events is vastly different from the management of adults, and requires a specific set of protocols and procedures, not yet outlined in Canadian documentation. This paper is not meant to discuss existing response protocols during R/N events, but rather to discuss the deficiencies in planning and suggested improvements/revisions raised through discussion at the workshop on how to better manage children during an R/N event. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source