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Inagaki Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Okuda S.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Sakai A.,Japanese International Research Center for Agricultural science | Nakanishi A.,Kyoto University | And 2 more authors.
Ecological Research | Year: 2010

Leaf-litter nitrogen concentration was investigated for 17 hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endlicher) forests in the Kochi region on the Pacific Ocean side and the Kyoto region on the Sea of Japan side in Japan where both the amount of precipitation and frequency of typhoon attacks differ between regions. Leaf properties were predicted from climatic, stand, and soil properties by multiple regression analysis. Fresh-leaf nitrogen was higher in the Kyoto than Kochi regions and was higher where soil C/N ratio is lower. The time of leaf-fall, i. e., 50% of the annual leaf fall, showed a difference of 86 days among the forests and occurred earlier in forests at higher altitudes. The time of leaf-fall at higher altitudes was earlier due to the higher susceptibility to strong winds from typhoons. Leaf-litter nitrogen concentration of annual leaf-fall or winter leaf-fall was lower when the time of leaf-fall occurred later. The results indicate that nitrogen resorption is proficient when leaf-fall occurs later, leading to lower leaf-litter nitrogen concentration. © The Ecological Society of Japan 2010.

Rose M.T.,University of Sydney | Rose M.T.,Japanese International Research Center for Agricultural science | Deaker R.,University of Sydney | Potard S.,University of Sydney | And 4 more authors.
World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Achieving specific counting of plant growth promoting (PGP) microorganisms maintained at high numbers in inert carriers such as peat is an important objective for the inoculation of field crops such as cereals. In this paper, methods based on selective media together with strain-specific counting using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) were examined. Selective plate counting was developed by screening four commercial PGP biofertiliser strains for resistance to antibiotics. ELISAs for each strain were developed and calibrated by purifying polyclonal antibodies, testing sample pre-treatment strategies, and investigating the effect of culture age on standard curves. Selective plate counting proved to be more accurate than the ELISA methodology, confirming that all microbial strains survived for at least 1 month in sterile peat without loss in viable numbers, and further demonstrated growth inhibition of the strain Candida tropicalis HY when co-inoculated with the other strains Pseudomonas fluorescens 1 N, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens E19 and Bacillus subtilis B9. This is the first known study to have investigated the dynamics of PGP microorganisms in multi-strain inoculants and demonstrates the utility and hitherto unmentioned drawbacks of two different low-cost counting methods for biofertiliser quality control. Such information is vital for the adoption and success of non-rhizobial PGP biofertilisers for sustainable agriculture. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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