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Palazzuoli A.,University of Siena | Ronco C.,International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza IRRIV
Heart Failure Reviews | Year: 2011

Heart failure may lead to acute kidney injury and viceversa. Chronic kidney disease may affect the clinical outcome in terms of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality while chronic heart failure may cause CKD. All these disorders contribute to the composite definition of cardio-renal syndromes. Renal impairment in HF patients has been increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality; however, the most important clinical trials in HF tend to exclude patients with significant renal dysfunction. The mechanisms whereby renal insufficiency worsens the outcome in HF are not known, and several pathways could contribute to the "vicious heart/kidney circle." Traditionally, renal impairment has been attributed to the renal hypoperfusion due to reduced cardiac output and decreased systemic pressure. The hypovolemia leads to sympathetic activity, increased renin-angiotensin- aldosterone pathways and arginine-vasopressin release. All these mechanisms cause fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction and an increased congestion as well as cardiac workload. Therapy addressed to improve renal dysfunction, reduce neurohormonal activation and ameliorate renal blood flow could lead to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with cardio-renal syndrome. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Ronco C.,International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza IRRIV
Critical Care | Year: 2014

The RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease) criteria were introduced in 2004, defining the clinical stage of acute kidney injury (AKI) and outcome measures based on serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate, and urine output. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that these markers are insufficient in drawing an accurate illustration of kidney injury. Indeed, mortality and morbidity remain high in AKI, suggesting that accuracy and speed of patient evaluation are lacking. A great deal of evidence indicates that neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a sensitive and specific early marker of various etiological classes of AKI and would be highly valuable in conjunction with existing markers of AKI for better classifying renal injury as well as dysfunction (kidney attack). Improvements in diagnosis, risk identification, stratification, prognosis, and therapeutic monitoring will benefit clinical decision-making in the individualized bundling of therapies and ongoing patient management. In particular, kidney protection and AKI prevention may become feasible if an earlier and more accurate diagnosis is made for AKI. Here, we discuss the opportunity to consider whether NGAL is ready for routine clinical use in a number of etiologies of AKI. © 2014 Ronco.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Iyngkaran P.,Monash University | Schneider H.,Alfred Pathology Service | Devarajan P.,University of Cincinnati | Anavekar N.,University of Melbourne | And 2 more authors.
Seminars in Nephrology | Year: 2012

Chronic heart failure and chronic renal failure are at epidemic proportions. These patients have significantly altered cardiac, renal, and all-cause outcomes. Much of the current research has focused on treating these individual organs in isolation. Although there are positive data on outcomes with neurohormonal modulation, they, however, remain underused. At present, data lacks for novel treatment options, while evidence continues to point at significantly worsened prognosis. Current diagnostic tools that detect acute changes in renal function or renal injury appear retrospective, which often hinder meaningful diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. This review is aimed at exploring the importance of accurate assessment of renal function for the heart failure patient by providing a synopsis on cardio-renal physiology and establishing the possibility of novel approaches in bridging the divide. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Zaragoza J.J.,International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza IRRIV
Blood Purification | Year: 2015

Introduction: One of the top research priorities in acute kidney injury is related to the timing of renal replacement therapy (RRT) initiation. The purpose was to develop an index that might serve as a standardized concept of timing of initiation of RRT. Methods: A previously described database was used. We applied a multivariable Cox regression model with backward selection to characterize parameters present in those patients who received RRT compared with those who did not receive RRT. Results: We studied 590 patients. We identified independent risk factors for RRT and a risk score was devised. The Area Under the Curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.86) for predicting the need for RRT. Conclusions: We have developed a simple Score (IRRIV Score) to identify patients at high risk of requiring RRT. This score may serve as a standardized definition of the timing of initiation of RRT. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel Copyright © 2015, S. Karger AG. All rights reserved. Source

Ronco C.,International Renal Research Institute of Vicenza IRRIV
Blood Purification | Year: 2015

Hemodiafiltration (HDF) seems to represent the gold standard in the field of replacement of renal function by dialysis. High convective fluxes have been correlated with better clinical outcomes. Sometimes, however, there are technical barriers to the achievement of high blood flows adequate to perform effective convective therapies. In spite of optimized procedures, the progressive increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP), the blood viscosity due to hemoconcentration and blood path resistance sometimes becomes inevitable. We propose two possible solutions that can be operated automatically via specific software in the dialysis machine: predilution on demand and backflush on demand. Predilution on demand consists in an automatic feedback of the machine, diverting part of the filtered dialysate into a predilution mode with an infusion of 200 ml in 30 s while the ultrafiltration pump stops. This produces a sudden hemodilution with a return of the parameters to acceptable values. The performance of the filter improves, and the pressure alterations are mitigated. Backflush on demand consists in an automatic feedback of the machine triggered by the TMP control, producing a positive pressure in the dialysate compartment due to a stop of filtration and rapid infusion of at least 100 ml of ultrapure dialysate into the hollow fiber. This not only produces a significant hemodilution, but also backflushes the membrane pores detaching protein layers and improving membrane permeability. These are two examples of how technology will permit to overcome technical barriers to a widespread diffusion of HDF and adequate convective dose delivery. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

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