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Hamburger A.,International Psychoanalytic University
Forum der Psychoanalyse | Year: 2016

Social traumatization is targeted at entire victim groups and occurs in a societal context. The classification of posttraumatic stress disorders in DSM-5, which intentionally fails to differentiate between different types of traumatic events, ignores the social factors of traumatogenic pathologies. Whereas clinical practice unanimously embraces the thorough exploration of patients’ individual life experiences and history of suffering, taking the relevant social and environmental factors into account, in the classification systems (DSM-5 and ICD-10) it has been decided to address posttraumatic disorders as individual pathologies and not as social phenomena. Even equating social trauma with a disease may foster this partial exclusion, which in turn can contribute to perpetuation of the posttraumatic condition. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

The undisputed necessity of a reform of the Psychotherapist Act could open up the chance to reconsider the training of psychological psychotherapists and to completely renew the structure from the ground up. This article proposes that psychotherapy training should be designed based on the profession itself. Starting from the question of what a good psychotherapist needs to have learnt, a study curriculum is drafted which is structured towards this professional target from the very beginning. This direct training imparts psychotherapeutic competence based on a broad psychological, medical and social scientific education, encourages targeted social competences and enables clinical experience in advance. The training terminates after six years with a state examination and qualification for the profession of psychotherapist. Subsequently, qualified psychotherapists undertake a four-year in-house advanced professional education to an adult or pediatric and adolescent psychotherapist. After completing half of the study period, i.e. after three years, students decide on one of the scientifically recognized courses and subsequently the study course is partly procedure-related and mostly interprocedural. The study incorporates a practical year which accompanies the last four semesters as a half day practical training. Universities which want to offer this study course must be qualified to award doctorates and have a psychotherapy research walk-in clinic. They must also cooperate with recognized training partners who participate in the course of the study and professionally structure the four-year in-house advanced professional education. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Streeck-Fischer A.,International Psychoanalytic University
Forum der Psychoanalyse | Year: 2016

The process of identity formation as a central task of adolescence is difficult and fragile but even more so in adolescents with a migration background. Confronted with adverse experiences, cultural peculiarities of the country of origin can aggravate the second individuation phase of the adolescent, superimposed by a third phase caused by migration (Blos, Ahktar). With three case reports of mentally disturbed adolescents from different migration backgrounds, some specific dangers of such borderland adolescents are presented. All three cases have something in common: the importance of the glorified militant ideologies of the country of origin influencing the mental disorder of the adolescent in a special way such as a suitable target of narcissistic self-aggrandizement. The dangers of diagnostic colonization of alien symptoms and reactivation of elements of the Nazi past into the present with offender-victim constellations triggered by alienation are pointed out and discussed. The inability to draw borderlines between reality and fantasy and transmissive and deposed conflicts are described. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Streeck-Fischer A.,International Psychoanalytic University | Streeck-Fischer A.,Lou Andreas Salome Institute
American Journal of Psychoanalysis | Year: 2015

Adolescence is a period of instability caused by biological changes and restructuring of the personality. An immigration background renders the process of identity formation even more difficult or fragile, with an additional burden coming from persecution and harassment. Three case studies of mentally disturbed adolescents with different immigration backgrounds illustrate the problems in diagnosis and psychotherapy. All three cases share a common feature - the particular influence of the native country on the psychic disorder of the adolescent, be it a suitable target of narcissistic self-aggrandizement, a reactivated metaphor of the past or a deposited conflict. I point out and discuss the danger of diagnostic colonization and activation of perpetrator-victim constellations - such as the Nazi past in the present. Offering a transcultural transitional space as a container yields a therapeutic approach to the different worlds of these borderland adolescents.

Tobel L.,University of Konstanz | Hubner R.,University of Konstanz | Sturmer B.,International Psychoanalytic University
Acta Psychologica | Year: 2014

The Simon effect is usually explained by the assumption that the irrelevant stimulus location automatically activates the corresponding response. In the case of incongruent stimulus-response assignments automatically activated responses therefore have to be suppressed to ensure correct responses. This account, however, has been called into question for other than horizontally arranged visual Simon tasks. We investigated whether there is a qualitative or quantitative difference in suppression of irrelevant activation between horizontally and vertically arranged Simon tasks, using delta-function analyses. Sequential analyses revealed suppression after incongruent trials in both tasks, supporting the idea of a quantitative rather than a qualitative difference between the tasks. We conclude that automatic response activation is weaker in vertical tasks resulting in lower inhibitory demands as compared to horizontal tasks. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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