Taubner S.,University of Kassel |
Taubner S.,International Psychoanalytic University |
White L.O.,University of Leipzig |
Zimmermann J.,University of Kassel |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology | Year: 2013
The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Tobel L.,University of Konstanz |
Hubner R.,University of Konstanz |
Sturmer B.,International Psychoanalytic University
Acta Psychologica | Year: 2014
The Simon effect is usually explained by the assumption that the irrelevant stimulus location automatically activates the corresponding response. In the case of incongruent stimulus-response assignments automatically activated responses therefore have to be suppressed to ensure correct responses. This account, however, has been called into question for other than horizontally arranged visual Simon tasks. We investigated whether there is a qualitative or quantitative difference in suppression of irrelevant activation between horizontally and vertically arranged Simon tasks, using delta-function analyses. Sequential analyses revealed suppression after incongruent trials in both tasks, supporting the idea of a quantitative rather than a qualitative difference between the tasks. We conclude that automatic response activation is weaker in vertical tasks resulting in lower inhibitory demands as compared to horizontal tasks. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Krause R.,International Psychoanalytic University
International Forum of Psychoanalysis | Year: 2010
This paper tries to follow the historical development of the ideas related to the term primary identification. It is shown that Freud's thinking regarding primary identification was developed around the phenomenon of mass suggestion, which was explained using the concept of identification with the leader, primary identification, and Einfuhlung. However, two false translations from Freud's German to English led to severe confusion in the subsequent literature. The most important one was that Einfuhlung was translated as empathy. It is shown that Freud meant by Einfuhlung something like affect contagion that was considered to be an inborn capacity to activate motoric patterns by just looking at the behavior of other human beings. This idea is a conceptual forerunner of mirror neurons. The activation of these is a prerequisite for empathy, but without separation between the self and the other, the attribution to which the feeling belongs is impossible. Kernberg, following Klein, uses the term introjection for the process of very early internalisations. We are proposing to discriminate interjections from identifications following Piaget's description of assimilation versus accommodation. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Streeck-Fischer A.,International Psychoanalytic University
Forum der Psychoanalyse | Year: 2016
The process of identity formation as a central task of adolescence is difficult and fragile but even more so in adolescents with a migration background. Confronted with adverse experiences, cultural peculiarities of the country of origin can aggravate the second individuation phase of the adolescent, superimposed by a third phase caused by migration (Blos, Ahktar). With three case reports of mentally disturbed adolescents from different migration backgrounds, some specific dangers of such borderland adolescents are presented. All three cases have something in common: the importance of the glorified militant ideologies of the country of origin influencing the mental disorder of the adolescent in a special way such as a suitable target of narcissistic self-aggrandizement. The dangers of diagnostic colonization of alien symptoms and reactivation of elements of the Nazi past into the present with offender-victim constellations triggered by alienation are pointed out and discussed. The inability to draw borderlines between reality and fantasy and transmissive and deposed conflicts are described. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Hamburger A.,International Psychoanalytic University
Forum der Psychoanalyse | Year: 2016
Social traumatization is targeted at entire victim groups and occurs in a societal context. The classification of posttraumatic stress disorders in DSM-5, which intentionally fails to differentiate between different types of traumatic events, ignores the social factors of traumatogenic pathologies. Whereas clinical practice unanimously embraces the thorough exploration of patients’ individual life experiences and history of suffering, taking the relevant social and environmental factors into account, in the classification systems (DSM-5 and ICD-10) it has been decided to address posttraumatic disorders as individual pathologies and not as social phenomena. Even equating social trauma with a disease may foster this partial exclusion, which in turn can contribute to perpetuation of the posttraumatic condition. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Plea for direct training of psychotherapists: Draft of a profession-based study curriculum [Plädoyer für eine Direktausbildung zum Psychotherapeuten: Entwurf eines Studienganges "von der Profession her"]
Korner J.,International Psychoanalytic University
Forum der Psychoanalyse | Year: 2013
The undisputed necessity of a reform of the Psychotherapist Act could open up the chance to reconsider the training of psychological psychotherapists and to completely renew the structure from the ground up. This article proposes that psychotherapy training should be designed based on the profession itself. Starting from the question of what a good psychotherapist needs to have learnt, a study curriculum is drafted which is structured towards this professional target from the very beginning. This direct training imparts psychotherapeutic competence based on a broad psychological, medical and social scientific education, encourages targeted social competences and enables clinical experience in advance. The training terminates after six years with a state examination and qualification for the profession of psychotherapist. Subsequently, qualified psychotherapists undertake a four-year in-house advanced professional education to an adult or pediatric and adolescent psychotherapist. After completing half of the study period, i.e. after three years, students decide on one of the scientifically recognized courses and subsequently the study course is partly procedure-related and mostly interprocedural. The study incorporates a practical year which accompanies the last four semesters as a half day practical training. Universities which want to offer this study course must be qualified to award doctorates and have a psychotherapy research walk-in clinic. They must also cooperate with recognized training partners who participate in the course of the study and professionally structure the four-year in-house advanced professional education. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Gebhardt S.,International Psychoanalytic University |
von Georgi R.,International Psychoanalytic University
Mental Illness | Year: 2015
A psychiatric population (n=123) was examined on how music preferences had changed after the onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; this group of patients considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who experienced a preference shift reported that music had impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less confidence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attribute less importance to music and also reported that music had impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions on how to use music in a functional way and not a dysfunctional one. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients. Due to the ubiquity of music, psychoeducative instructions on how to use music in everyday life plays an increasing role in the treatment of mental illness. © S. Gebhardt and R. von Georgi, 2015.
Hamburger A.,International Psychoanalytic University
Contemporary Psychoanalysis | Year: 2015
The detailed analysis of a five-minute section from the testimony of a hospitalized survivor demonstrates how the fragmented autobiographical narrative is reenacted in the relational matrix among the interviewer, the survivor, and the research group. Detailed analysis establishes that the core of the fragmentation of the survivor’s autobiographical narrative lies in the unconscious social matrix. This is discussed as a condition and consequence of perpetuation of genocidal trauma. © William Alanson White Institute of Psychiatry, Psychoanalysis & Psychology and the William Alanson White Psychoanalytic Society.
Buchholz M.B.,International Psychoanalytic University
Forum der Psychoanalyse | Year: 2014
Hermeneutics (meaning, understanding) and scientism (causality, explanation) formed and still form opposites that make it difficult to adequately conceptualize self-determination and positioning of psychoanalysis in the theory of sciences. The first proposal is to view these opposites not as an either-or principle but more as the principle of complementarity as proposed in the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum physics. Then, the communicative turn of hermeneutics as thoroughly worked through by Habermas can be combined with results of empirical research from infant research and primatology so that a bridge between the two camps comes into sight. This bridge is stable if besides “meaning” and “causality” a third pole is established: sociality. Thus, a step forward to a triadic epistemology can be taken which is prepared here. Research on the microstructure of social interactions in psychoanalysis confirms the possibilities of including a social dimension which is extremely important but widely ignored in the theory of scientific debates between hermeneutics and science. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Ludwig-Korner C.,International Psychoanalytic University
Psyche (Germany) | Year: 2015
After an outline of the infant observation method devised by Esther Bick and its significance for psychoanalytical training, the methodology is subjected to critical scrutiny. This leads to the proposal that infant observation be supplemented by observation of the baby using video analysis and the consequent modification of infant observation methods.