International Prevention Research Institute

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

International Prevention Research Institute

Sainte-Foy-lès-Lyon, France

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News Article | December 9, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

SAN ANTONIO -- Breast cancer mortality rates continue to decline in many nations, but a review of mortality trends in 47 countries around the world indicates some significant disparities, particularly in South Korea and some Latin American nations, according to results presented at the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 6-10. "Breast cancer is by far the primary cancer site in women and, worldwide, represents a quarter of all cancers in women," said the study's lead author, Cécile Pizot, MSc, at the International Prevention Research Institute in Lyon, France. "Comparing mortality trends between countries helps identify which health care systems have been the most efficient at reducing breast cancer mortality." In this study, Pizot and colleagues extracted information on breast cancer deaths from the World Health Organization database and calculated mortality rates over the years 1987-2013, stratifying results according to age groups. Overall, breast cancer mortality declined in 39 out of 47 countries, including the United States and most developed European nations. England and Wales had the sharpest drop in mortality, with a 46 percent decline. Pizot said this trend was to be expected, due to advances in detection and treatment over the past few decades. Latin American nations experienced scattered increases in mortality; for example, Brazil and Colombia saw mortality rates increase in women of all age groups, while in Argentina and Chile mortality rates decreased in all women. South Korea had the most dramatic increase in breast cancer mortality, with an 83 percent increase overall and higher mortality in every age group. However, the breast cancer mortality rate is still lower than the rate in the United States (5.3 per 100,000 women in South Korea compared with 14 per 100,000 women in the United States in the 2011-2013 period). "South Korea has experienced major societal changes since the 1950s and quickly evolved from an agricultural, developing country to a highly industrialized and Westernized country," Pizot said. "Such quick changes might explain the considerable shift in cancer mortality." Other highlights of the study: "This finding underlines the difficulty of isolating a single, common factor that would have a major influence on mortality trends," Pizot said, adding that future research on breast cancer mortality should focus on other facets of breast cancer management, including risk factors, drug therapies, access to care, and the use of multidisciplinary teams. "Differences in health care systems and patient management could explain discrepancies in mortality reduction between similar countries," Pizot said. "However, there is at present little data comparing the management of breast cancer patients across countries." Pizot said a limitation of the study is that data were unavailable for many Latin American, Asian, and African nations. This study was funded internally by the International Prevention Research Institute. Pizot has no conflicts of interest. Abstract Publication Number: P5-08-04 Title: Overview of breast cancer mortality trends in the world Presentation: Friday, Dec. 9, Poster Session 5, 5 p.m. CT The mission of the 2016 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium is to produce a unique and comprehensive scientific meeting that encompasses the full spectrum of breast cancer research, facilitating the rapid translation of new knowledge into better care for patients with breast cancer. The Cancer Therapy & Research Center (CTRC) at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), and Baylor College of Medicine are joint sponsors of the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. This collaboration utilizes the clinical strengths of the CTRC and Baylor and the AACR's scientific prestige in basic, translational, and clinical cancer research to expedite the delivery of the latest scientific advances to the clinic. For more information about the symposium, please visit http://www. . To interview Cécile Pizot, contact Julia Gunther at julia.gunther@aacr.org or 267-250-5441.


Boyle P.,International Prevention Research Institute
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2012

Breast cancer is a major problem for global public health. Breast Cancer is the most common incident form of cancer in women around the world. The incidence is increasing while mortality is declining in many high-income countries. The last decade has seen a revolution in the understanding of breast cancer, with new classifications proposed that have significant prognostic value and provide guides to treatment options. Breast cancers that demonstrate the absence of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and no overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are referred to as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There is now evidence emerging from epidemiological studies regarding important characteristics of this group of tumours that carry a relatively poorer prognosis than the major breast cancer sub-types. From this review of available data and information, there are some consistent findings that emerge. Women with TNBC experience the peak risk of recurrence within 3 years of diagnosis, and the mortality rates appear to be increased for 5 years after diagnosis. TNBC represents 10%-20% of invasive breast cancers and has been associated with African-American race, deprivation status, younger age at diagnosis, more advanced disease stage, higher grade, high mitotic indices, family history of breast cancer and BRCA1 mutations. TNBC is regularly reported to be three times more common in women of African descent and in pre-menopausal women, and carries a poorer prognosis than other forms of breast cancer. Although prospects for prevention of non-hormone-dependent breast cancer are currently poor, it is still important to understand the aetiology of such tumours. There remains a great deal of work to be done to arrive at a comprehensive picture of the aetiology of breast cancer. Key recommendations are that there is a clear and urgent need to have more epidemiological studies of the breast cancer sub-types to integrate aetiological and lifestyle factors for prevention of incidence and death, and to have more population-based information of the clinical and biological relevance from cancer registries. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Autier P.,International Prevention Research Institute | Boniol M.,International Prevention Research Institute
BMC Medicine | Year: 2012

In this article, we discuss the most common epidemiological methods used for evaluating the ability of mammography screening to decrease the risk of breast cancer death in general populations (effectiveness). Case-control studies usually find substantial effectiveness. However when breast cancer mortality decreases for reasons unrelated to screening, the case-control design may attribute to screening mortality reductions due to other causes. Studies based on incidence-based mortality have obtained contrasted results compatible with modest to considerable effectiveness, probably because of differences in study design and statistical analysis. In areas where screening has been widespread for a long time, the incidence of advanced breast cancer should be decreasing, which in turn would translate into reduced mortality. However, no or modest declines in the incidence of advanced breast cancer has been observed in these areas. Breast cancer mortality should decrease more rapidly in areas with early introduction of screening than in areas with late introduction of screening. Nonetheless, no difference in breast mortality trends has been observed between areas with early or late screening start. When effectiveness is assessed using incidence-based mortality studies, or the monitoring of advanced cancer incidence, or trends in mortality, the ecological bias is an inherent limitation that is not easy to control. Minimization of this bias requires data over long periods of time, careful selection of populations being compared and availability of data on major confounding factors. If case-control studies seem apparently more adequate for evaluating screening effectiveness, this design has its own limitations and results must be viewed with caution.See related Opinion article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/106 and Commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/164. © 2012 Autier and Boniol; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Curado M.P.,International Prevention Research Institute | De Souza D.L.B.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte
Annals of Global Health | Year: 2014

Background In Latin America and the Caribbean, the epidemiological transition has been occurring in an unequal manner. Infectious-contagious diseases share space with the increase of chronic nontransmissible diseases, such as cancer, which already represents the second most common cause of death, after cardiovascular illnesses. Objectives This study provides a global picture of the burden of cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the challenges faced when controlling this disease in these regions. Findings Epidemiological information on cancer in Latin America originates mainly from mortality registries and from a limited number of population-based cancer registries. Estimates indicate increases of 72% in the incidence of cancer and 78% in the mortality of men between 2012 and 2030, and for women the rates are 62% and 74%, respectively. These increases in incidence rates, accompanied by disproportionally high mortality rates, when compared with other regions of the world, reveal the magnitude of the challenge of controlling cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean. Although neoplasms are among the main causes of death, the control strategies are faced with issues such as organization and development of the health system, and the public policy formulation mechanism. Conclusions Establishing knowledge on the real impact of incidence, mortality, and survival in Latin America and the Caribbean is quite a challenge due to the lack of an updated and dynamic information system on mortality and incidence, although some improvement has been made in the information systems of some countries within the most recent decade. Other obstacles for cancer control are the uneven allocation of resources, lack of investments in equipment and infrastructure, and the concentration of health care professionals in large urban centers, which contribute to the reproduction of socioeconomic iniquities in the assistance of populations that suffer from cancer. © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.


Curado M.P.,International Prevention Research Institute | Boyle P.,International Prevention Research Institute
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review intends to present some epidemiological findings regarding the epidemiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma not related to alcohol or tobacco (HNSCCNAT). RECENT FINDINGS: Twenty-five percent of squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck are not related to tobacco or alcohol consumption. The risk factors for this group of malignancies are not very well established yet. HNSCCNAT are more likely to occur in the oropharynx. The diagnosis is more frequent at young age (before 50). The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV-positive) infection is high. SUMMARY: Monitoring HPV status in head and neck cancer patients who are not tobacco or alcohol consumers will enable physicians to better plan treatment. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.


Martins V.R.,Hospital AC Camargo | Dias M.S.,International Prevention Research Institute | Hainaut P.,International Prevention Research Institute
Current Opinion in Oncology | Year: 2013

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exosomes and microvesicles are secreted particles of 30-200 nm in diameter, delimited by a lipid bilayer and containing a wide range of membrane-bound or free proteins and nucleic acids (in particular mRNA and miRNA). Here, we review the properties of tumor-cell-derived microvesicles as carriers of molecular information in relation to cancer progression and promotion of metastasis. RECENT FINDINGS: Microvesicles from tumor cells operate as signaling platforms that diffuse in the extracellular space to target cells in the microenvironment, modulating the interactions of tumor cells with stromal, inflammatory, dendritic, immune or vascular cells and priming the formation of the metastatic niche. SUMMARY: Because of their stability, exosomes and microvesicles can be retrieved in bodily fluids as biomarkers for cancer detection and monitoring. They offer a range of molecular targets for controlling cell-cell interactions during invasion and metastasis. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Boffetta P.,International Prevention Research Institute
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health | Year: 2014

Purpose: To review epidemiologic studies on risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposure to diesel exhaust. Methods: A literature search was conducted, and data were abstracted in a systematic fashion. Comparable results were combined using a random-effects meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-six studies were included in the review, including five studies based on routine statistics, 11 case-control studies [meta-relative risk (RR) of three estimates for diesel exhaust exposure 0.9; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.5, 1.6] and ten cohort studies (meta-RR of their results: 1.03; 95 % CI 0.93, 1.13). Few studies reported results according to duration of exposure or other quantitative measures; no consistent pattern emerged. Conclusions: The overall evidence from studies on occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and risk of pancreatic cancer leads to the conclusion of the absence of such association. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Mccormack V.A.,International Agency for Research on Cancer | Boffetta P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Boffetta P.,International Prevention Research Institute
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2011

Background: The global burden of cancer is projected to increase from 13.3 to 21.4 million incident cases between 2010 and 2030 due to demographic changes alone, dominated by a growing burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Lifestyle risk factors for cancer are also changing in these countries and may further influence this burden.Design: We consider examples of changes already occurring in population-level distributions of tobacco and alcohol consumption, body weight, and reproductive lives of women to gauge the magnitude of their projected impact on cancer incidence in future decades.Results: Trends in lifestyle factors vary greatly between settings and by sex. Some common trends point to considerable increases in cancers of the (i) lung in men due to tobacco smoking; (ii) upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) due to increasing tobacco and alcohol consumption, worse in men; (iii) colon from increasing body mass index, and alcohol and tobacco consumption; and (iv) in women, breast due particularly to consistent international trends of younger age at menarche, smaller family size, and, at postmenopausal ages, increasing body weight.Conclusions: In many LMICs, the future cancer burden will be worsened by changing lifestyles. Affected common cancer sites likely to experience the largest increases are lung, colon, UADT, and breast. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Rosenblatt E.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Izewska J.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Anacak Y.,International Atomic Energy Agency | Pynda Y.,International Atomic Energy Agency | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Radiotherapy is used for cure or palliation in around half of patients with cancer. We analysed data on radiotherapy equipment in 33 European countries registered in the Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) database, managed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. As of July, 2012, Europe had 1286 active radiotherapy centres. The average number of teletherapy machines per radiotherapy centre ranged from 1·2 to 7·0 in different countries. Nordic countries, the UK, the Netherlands, and Slovenia all have large centres with four to ten teletherapy machines. Most western and southern European countries have several small centres with one or two machines, with few larger centres. The fragmentation in radiotherapy services that prevails in many European countries might affect the economic burden of radiotherapy and its quality. Eastern and southeastern European countries need to expand and modernise their radiotherapy equipment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


News Article | January 29, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

Death occurring due to malignant melanoma is expected to decline by 2050 according to new research. While the current levels will see a decline, the deaths due to skin cancer will see an increase because of the populating aging. However, there is a ray of hope per the research shared at the European Cancer Congress 2017 on Jan. 29. The researchers are of the belief that if novel treatments to tackle melanoma prove to be successful, then the deaths because of the disease can also see a sharp drop. Alice Koechlin, from the International Prevention Research Institute in Lyon, France, revealed that those born between 1900 and 1960 were at the highest risk of passing away due to skn cancer. This is because, during this era, people were not aware of the hazardous effects of being exposed to UV rays from the sun. Moreover, at the time, health experts were of the school of thought that sunshine was beneficial for people. "These beliefs were boosted by observations that exposure to ultraviolet light and sunshine could heal some skin infections and rickets, and by the discovery of vitamin D," said Koechlin. Moreover, as Koechlin shared that it was a common practice to treat children and babies with commercial UV emitting devices, as well as them being exposed to the afternoon sun sans any protection. It was only by the 1960s, that people became aware of the detrimental effects of being exposed to sun's rays for prolonged periods. It was then that awareness about the risks of sunburn in childhood and sun exposure that were instrumental in a person developing melanoma at a later age. For the purpose of the study, the researchers deployed statistical models to understand whether recent cancer deaths occurred because of aging effects, one's birth year or due to the introduction of new treatments or technologies. The date or the year of birth was taken into consideration to estimate whether people have the tendency of suffering from such a disease because of their exposure to sunshine, which could also be a huge cause for cancer. This model estimated deaths due to melanoma in three countries - Australia, Sweden and the U.S. from 2014 to 2050. Two estimates were produced by the researchers, one of which was based on the supposition that no effective treatment to counter the disease was available. The second supposition was that a treatment to tackle the disease was available, which led to a 25 percent drop in deaths due to melanoma from 2015. This was based on the premise that all the patients were able to access the treatments. The researchers discovered that in the U.S., the death rates would be 2.5 to 3 times lower when compared to peak years, slipping to melanoma-related death rates that existed prior to 1960. The death based on age factor would drop from 4 to 1.6 per 100,000 men. It would drop from 1.7 to less than 1 per 100,000 women. The various numbers were forecasted based on the supposition that currently, there was no therapy that could effectively treat melanoma. "With an effective therapy, we would expect to see decreases in the number of melanoma deaths from 2030," said Koechlin. According to Koechlin, soon deaths due to melanoma will fast become a rarity for people below 50. Post 2050, most deaths due to this disease shall happen in people above 70 years. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

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