International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI

George Town, Malaysia

International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI

George Town, Malaysia
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Mtangadura T.J.,Soil Fertility Consortium For Southern Africa Sofecsa | Mtambanengwe F.,Soil Fertility Consortium For Southern Africa Sofecsa | Nezomba H.,Soil Fertility Consortium For Southern Africa Sofecsa | Rurinda J.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Mapfumo P.,Soil Fertility Consortium For Southern Africa Sofecsa
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

Sustainability of maize-based cropping systems is a major challenge for southern Africa, yet the demand for maize as staple food and animal feed in the region continues to increase. A study was conducted on a sandy clay loam (220 g clay kg-1 soil) at Domboshawa in Zimbabwe to investigate the long-term effects of organic resource quality and application rate, and nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil chemical properties and maize (Zea mays L.) productivity. Crotalaria juncea (high quality), Calliandra calothyrsus (medium quality), cattle manure (variable quality), maize stover and Pinus patula sawdust (both low quality) were incorporated into soil at 4.0 t C ha-1 (high rate) and 1.2 t C ha-1 (low rate) at the start of each cropping season for nine consecutive years. At both high and low application rates, each of the five organic resources was applied in combination with or without mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer at 120 kg N ha-1. The nine-year period saw maize grain yields declining by 22% to 84% across treatments despite increases in soil organic carbon, total N and available P from 6% to 80%. Crotalaria, Calliandra and manure led to a less steep yield decline. Exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K), and soil pH explained much of the variation in yield patterns observed under the different organic resource applications. Maize grain yield was positively correlated with exchangeable Ca (r = 0.51), Mg (r = 0.62) and K (r = 0.53), and soil pH (r = 0.49), but negatively correlated with other soil properties over the 9-year period. We concluded that declining soil exchangeable basic cations were the underlying causes of decreasing maize productivity, and was aggravated by use of low rates of organic resource inputs, particularly with N fertilization. Current nutrient management and fertilizer recommendations that emphasize inorganic N, P and K significantly undervalue the role played by organic resources in sustainability of maize cropping systems in southern Africa. © 2017 Mtangadura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Pasuquin J.M.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Pasuquin J.M.,International Rice Research Institute | Pampolino M.F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Witt C.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | And 5 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

Rising incomes and changing dietary requirements are swiftly transforming maize (Zea mays L) in Southeast Asia from a food staple into an important industrial commodity. Increased maize production is required to meet rising demands, but additional production should come from the sustainable intensification of existing farmlands to minimize the undesirable effects of agriculture on the environment. We hypothesize that maize yields, profit, and N use efficiencies can be significantly increased through site-specific nutrient management (SSNM), thereby reducing yield gaps in the region. Through a combined approach of simulation modeling and on-farm research in at least 65 sites in 13 major maize-producing domains across Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines from 2004 to 2008, we were able to (a) quantify maize yield gaps and yield responses to fertilizer application, (b) evaluate the agronomic and economic performance of SSNM, and (c) evaluate the incremental profitability of SSNM in various production and grain and fertilizer price scenarios. The average exploitable yield gap between the attainable yield and current farmers' yield in Southeast Asia was about 0.9tha-1. Yield responses to fertilizer application across the region followed the order N>>P>K. Yield response to N was higher in irrigated sites than in rainfed sites (6tha-1 versus 2tha-1), while P and K fertilizer responses were similar across production systems (<2tha-1). Yield with SSNM was 1.0tha-1 (+13%) higher than the current farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) measured in the same cropping seasons. Yield increases were associated with a 10% decrease in the average N rate, but with increased application of K at sites where the previous K rates were low. Average N use efficiency increased by 42%, mainly by adjusting the rates and timing of N application to the stages of crop development. Across all sites and seasons, profitability increased by US$167ha-1 per crop, which was equivalent to15% of the total average net return. Opportunities for achieving higher income over the FFP (≥US$100ha-1 season) were greatest in highly favorable rainfed environments; less favorable rainfed areas were vulnerable to unfavorable market prices. We conclude that SSNM has the potential to close existing yield gaps in the maize production systems of Southeast Asia by improving yield, nutrient use efficiency, and profitability. © 2013 .


Buresh R.J.,International Rice Research Institute | Pampolino M.F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Witt C.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Fertilizer K and P requirements for rice (Oryza sativa L.) can be determined with site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) using estimated target yield, nutrient balances, and yield gains from added nutrient. We used the QUEFTS (QUantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils) model with >8000 plot-level observations to estimate the relationship between grain yield and nutrient accumulation in above-ground dry matter of irrigated rice with harvest index≥0.4. Predicted reciprocal internal efficiencies (RIEs) at 60-70% of yield potential corresponded to plant accumulation of 14.6 kg N, 2.7 kg P, and 15.9 kg K per tonne of grain yield. These RIEs enable determination of plant requirements for K and P and net output of K and P in harvested grain and removed crop residues at a target yield. Yield gains for nutrient applied to irrigated rice averaged 12% for K and 9% for P for 525 to 531 observations. For fields without certain yield gain, fertilizer K and P requirements can be determined by a partial maintenance approach (i.e., fertilizer input


Timsina J.,Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje | Jat M.L.,IRRI CIMMYT | Majumdar K.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI
Plant and Soil | Year: 2010

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zey mays) are grown in 3.5 million hectares (Mha) in Asia that includes 1.5 Mha in South Asia. These crops are grown in sequence on the same land in the same year either in double-or triple-crop systems to meet the rice demand of a rapidly expanding human population and maize demand of livestock and poultry. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of technical knowledge on agro-ecosystems and adaptation, area and distribution, yield potential and yield gaps, and nutrient management for rice-maize (R-M) systems in South Asia. Rice-maize systems are emerging all around South Asia but in particular are developing quite rapidly in Bangladesh and South and North India. Yield potential of rice and maize, as estimated by ORYZA2000 and Hybrid Maize models, reaches up to 15 and 22 t ha-1, respectively. However, data from several environments in India reveal gaps between potential and attainable yields of maize of upto 100% and between attainable and actual yields of upto 25-50%. Nutrient demand of R-M system is high due to high nutrient removal by high-yielding maize. Nutrient balance studies for these highly-productive and nutrient-extractive systems are scarce in South Asia. The review outlines principles of nutrient management for R-M systems, and identifies development, refinement, and dissemination of the integrated plant nutrition system technologies based on site-specific nutrient management principles as priorities for future research to increase yield, profitability, and sustainability of R-M systems. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Xu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Innovation International | Pampolino M.F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | And 5 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

A generic but flexible and location-specific fertilizer recommendation method is necessary due to inappropriate fertilization in China. A new fertilizer recommendation method, Nutrient Expert (NE) for Hybrid Maize, was developed using maize datasets from 2000 to 2010 in main maize production areas. The results showed that the average of indigenous nutrient supply were 130, 41 and 124. kg/ha, the mean of yield response were 2.1, 1.2, and 1.2. t/ha, and the average agronomic efficiency were 11.4, 15.7, and 11.8. kg/kg for N, P, and K, respectively. There was a significantly negative exponential relationship between yield response and indigenous nutrient supply, and a significant negative linear relationship between yield response and relative yield. Analysis also indicated that the quadratic curve relation was obvious between yield response and agronomic efficiency. NE system was established based on yield response and agronomic efficiency (AE) through above analysis, and on-farm field experiments were conducted in 408 farmers' fields to validate this system at seven provinces in China. The results showed that fertilizer recommendation based on NE method could maintain grain yield and profitability and improve nutrient use efficiency through 4R nutrient stewardship and it is proved to be a promising approach for fertilizer recommendation when soil testing is not timely or not available. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


de Oliveira Jr. A.,Embrapa Soja | Prochnow L.I.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Klepker D.,Embrapa Soja Setor Experimental de Balsas
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2011

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) crop started to be planted in the Brazilian Cerrado in the 1970's, and this region currently contributes with 57% of total soybean production in Brazil. Under natural conditions in this region, the soils present chemical limitations such as low pH, low Cation Exchange Capacity, low nutrient availability, and moreover, clayey soils have a high P fixation capacity mainly due to high contents of Fe/Al oxides. Since P is the most limiting nutrient is this region, a study was performed in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, in a Typic Hapludox, with clayey texture and low available P (extracted by resin). Treatments were defined to evaluate soybean response to broadcast Arad phosphate rock (PR) plus banded triple superphosphate (TSP) and to evaluate the soybean response to three proportions of PR and TSP. The experiment was established in October 2004 and was carried out for three consecutive crop years (2004/05 to 2006/07). The associated use of PR and TSP, in several situations, resulted in yields at least similar to that obtained with the use of the water soluble P source and, in some cases, even using lower P rates. Regarding the "mixtures", a linear response was observed when they were banded; however, when they were broadcasted, no increase in yield was observed above 50% of relative solubility. In conclusion, the association of sources differing in solubility may be a feasible agronomic option for P fertilizer management of soybeans.


Pasuquin J.M.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Saenong S.,Indonesian Cereal Research Institute ICERI | Tan P.S.,Cuu Long Rice Research Institute CLRRI | Witt C.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | And 2 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012

Increasing yields on existing farmland is the only option to meet the rising demand for maize without resorting to land use change. Maize yields in Southeast Asia are typically less than their potential because of sub-optimal fertilizer management, particularly nitrogen. We evaluated a range of N-fertilizer treatments on irrigated maize grown on medium-textured soils in Indonesia and Vietnam during the dry seasons of 2008-2009. The treatments included split applications with rates adjusted according to leaf color. We found no advantage in more than two splits in terms of yield or agronomic efficiency. Adjusting applications according to leaf color gave 0.80tha -1 more grain than fixed rates and US$182ha -1 higher profit. N-use was highly efficient in the range of 30-65kgkg -1N. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Waswa B.S.,University of Bonn | Vlek P.L.G.,University of Bonn | Tamene L.D.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | Okoth P.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
Geoderma | Year: 2013

Understanding the patterns of land degradation indicators can help to identify areas under threat as basis for designing and implementing site-specific management options. This study sort to identify and assess the patterns of land degradation indicators in selected districts of western Kenya. The study employed the use of Land Degradation Sampling Framework (LDSF) to characterize the sites. LDSF a spatially stratified, random sampling design framework consisting of 10. km × 10. km blocks and clusters of plots. The study broadly identified and classified the indicators and attributes of land degradation into soil and site stability, hydrologic function and biotic integrity. Assessment of general vegetation structure showed that over 70% of the land was under cropland with forests accounting for 8% of the area. Sheet erosion was the major form of soil loss. High variability was observed for the soil properties and this can be due to both inherent soil characteristics as well as land management practices. There was distinct variation in the soil properties between the topsoil (0-20. cm) and the subsoil (20-30. cm) with the topsoil having higher values for most of the parameters compared to the subsoil. Using coefficient of variation (CV) as criteria for expressing variability, Ca, TON, Mg, SOC and silt were most variable soil properties for the 0-20. cm depth. Moderate variability (CV 0.15-0.35) was observed for CEC, P, K and clay while Na, Sand and pH had the least variability (CV < 0.15). For the subsoil (20-30. cm), Ca, Mg and silt were the most variable. About 94% of the farms sampled were recorded to have very strongly acidic soil levels (pH. 4.5-5.5) while 6% of the farms had moderately acidic soil levels (pH. 5.6-6.0). Over 55% of the farms had low (< 2%) total organic carbon levels and this varied with land use. Soils with SOM below this 'critical level' are at a threat of degradation if not well managed. The principal component analysis (PCA) identified three main explanatory factors for soil variability: 'soil fertility potential', 'soil physical properties' and 'available P'. Improving productivity of land therefore calls for the adoption of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) options as a strategy to ensuring nutrient availability while at the same time building the natural nutrient reserve through soil organic matter build up. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Pampolino M.F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Witt C.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Witt C.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Pasuquin J.M.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | And 2 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2012

Meeting the demand for more food in the next 20-30years requires intensifying cereal cropping systems and increasing current yields to about 70-80% of the genetic yield potential. A dynamic and robust nutrient management approach such as site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) will be essential to increase yields and optimize profits while maintaining the productivity of these intensive cropping systems. SSNM has increased yield and profit in rice, maize, and wheat in major cropping systems in Asia; but, crop advisors have found it complex and difficult to implement in the field. Nutrient Expert (NE) was developed to provide crop advisors with a simpler and faster way to use SSNM. NE enables crop advisors to develop SSNM recommendations using existing site information. Nutrient Expert for Hybrid Maize (NEHM) increased yield and profit of farmers in Indonesia and the Philippines. In Indonesia, NEHM increased yield by 0.9tha -1, which increased profit by US$ 270ha -1 over farmer's fertilizer practice (FFP). Compared with FFP, NEHM recommendations reduced fertilizer P (-4kgha -1), increased fertilizer K (+11kgha -1), and did not significantly change fertilizer N. In the Philippines, NEHM increased yield by 1.6tha -1 and profit by US$ 379ha -1 compared with FFP. Compared with FFP, NEHM gave higher rates of all three nutrients (+25kgNha -1, +4kgPha -1, and +11kgKha -1), which substantially increased fertilizer costs (US$ 64ha -1) but still increased profit by about six times the additional investment in fertilizer. NE accounts for the important factors affecting site-specific recommendations, which makes it a suitable starting point for developing nutrient management tools to reach more users. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Xu X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | Pampolino M.F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute IPNI | And 5 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

Estimating balanced nutrient requirements for maize (Zea mays L.) in China is essential to manage nutrient application more effectively for increasing crop yield and reducing the risk of negative environmental impact. On-farm datasets were collected from 2001 to 2010 from China's maize-producing regions to investigate the relationship between grain yield and nutrient accumulation in the above-ground plant dry matter of commercial hybrid maize. The QUEFTS (quantitative evaluation of the fertility of tropical soils) model was used to estimate the balanced nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) requirements in China's maize growing regions. The analysis indicated that there were great differences in the grain yield and nutrient uptake between spring maize and summer maize: minimum and maximum internal nutrient efficiencies (IE, kg grain per kg nutrient in the above-ground plant dry matter) were 36 and 89. kg grain per kg N, 135 and 558. kg grain per kg P, 30 and 132. kg grain per kg K for spring maize, 31 and 70. kg grain per kg N, 108 and 435. kg grain per kg P, 32 and 110. kg grain per kg K for summer maize. The model predicted a linear increase in grain yield if nutrients were taken up in balance until yield reached about 60-70% of the potential yield. To produce 1000. kg of spring maize grain yield, 16.9. kg. N, 3.5. kg. P and 15.3. kg. K were required by above-ground dry matter of maize, and the corresponding IE were 59. kg grain per kg N, 287. kg grain per kg P and 65. kg grain per kg K. For summer maize, 20.3. kg. N, 4.4. kg. P, 15.9. kg. K were needed to produce 1000. kg maize grain in the linear part, and the corresponding IE were 49. kg grain per kg N, 227. kg grain per kg P and 63. kg grain per kg K. Optimal N:P:K ratios in plant biomass were 4.83:1:4.37 for spring maize and 4.61:1:3.61 for summer maize, respectively. QUEFTS analysis also indicated that a balanced N, P and K removal by grain to produce 1000. kg grain, when the target yield reached about 80% of the potential yield, the grain absorption of N, P and K accounted for 54%, 69% and 23% of above-ground N, P and K uptake for spring maize, and 67%, 85% and 23% for summer maize, respectively. Two-year field validation experiments indicated that the QUEFTS model could be used for estimating balanced nutrient requirements and contributed to developing fertilizer recommendations. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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