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He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program | Sha Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yao D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2013

Over-application of nitrogen (N) in North Central China is primary reasons for yield restriction and low nutrient use efficiencies. This study was to determine N management practices on grain yield, N efficiency, and N balance in China. Results from four season crops indicated that no significant yield differences across different N rates for the first season wheat were observed. Treatments with N rates lower than 75 kg N ha-1 manifested yield reduction for the following seasons, and no much yield differences existed for the rest treatments. The accumulated N recovery efficiency (NREac) values ranged from 10.1% to 44.2% over the four seasons, and over N fertilization led to low NREac. The net N balance increased with N applied. Results from current study provided the proof that in the current rotation system the N150N150 treatment was the best economic treatment for achieving both higher yield and N use efficiency. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Liu H.L.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Liu H.L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang J.Y.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Drury C.F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | And 9 more authors.
Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems | Year: 2011

Simulation models, such as the DSSAT (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer) Crop System Models are often used to characterize, develop and assess field crop production practices. In this study, one of the DSSAT Cropping System Model, CERES-Maize, was employed to characterize maize (Zea mays) yield and nitrogen dynamics in a 50-year maize production study at Woodslee, Ontario, Canada (42°13′N, 82°44′W). The treatments selected for this study included continuous corn/maize with fertilization (CC-F) and continuous corn/maize without fertilization (CC-NF) treatments. Sequential model simulations of long-term maize yield (1959-2008), near-surface (0-30 cm) soil mineral nitrogen (N) content (2000), and soil nitrate loss (1998-2000) were compared to measured values. The model did not provide accurate predictions of annual maize yields, but the overall agreement was as good as other researchers have obtained. In the CC-F treatment, near-surface soil mineral N and cumulative soil nitrate loss were simulated by the model reasonably well, with n-RMSE = 62 and 29%, respectively. In the CC-NF treatment, however, the model consistently overestimated soil nitrate loss. These outcomes can be used to improve our understanding of the long-term effects of fertilizer management practices on maize yield and soil properties in improved and degraded soils. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Chuan L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program | Jin J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

Estimating balanced nutrient requirement for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in China is essential to manage nutrient application more effectively for increasing crop yields and reducing risk of negative environmental impact. Datasets from 2000 to 2011 dealing with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) treatments across the winter and spring wheat growing regions in China were collected to assess the relationship between grain yield and nutrient uptake, and to estimate N, P and K optimal nutrient requirements for a target yield using the QUEFTS (Quantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils) model. In the QUEFTS model, two boundary lines described the minimum and maximum internal efficiencies (IEs, kg grain per kg nutrient in above-ground plant dry matter) of N, P and K. The minimum and maximum IEs for wheat were 28.8 and 62.6. kg grain per kg N, 98.9 and 487.4. kg grain per kg P, and 23.0 and 112.9. kg grain per kg K. The QUEFTS model predicted a linear-parabolic-plateau curve for balanced nutrient uptake with target yield increasing. The linear part continued until the yield was approximately at 60-70% of the potential yield, and 22.8. kg N, 4.4. kg P and 19.0. kg K were required to produce 1000. kg grain. The corresponding N:P:K ratio was 5.18:1:4.32, and the corresponding IEs were 43.9, 227.0 and 52.7. kg grain per kg N, P and K, respectively. The QUEFTS model simulated balanced N, P and K removal by 1000. kg grain were 18.3, 3.6 and 3.5. kg, respectively, with a N:P:K ratio of 5.08:1:0.97. Approximately 80%, 82% and 18% of N, P and K in total above-ground plant material were presented in the grain and removed from the field. The relationship between grain yield and nutrient uptake was also estimated to suggest fertilizer application avoiding excess or deficient nutrient supply. Field experiment validation confirmed that the QUEFTS model could be used as a practical tool for the Nutrient Expert decision support system to make fertilizer recommendation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Li W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program | Jin J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Jin J.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2012

The study was conducted at three sites during 2008 and 2009 in the North-East China Plain (NECP). Field experiments consisted of five or six nitrogen (N) fertilization rates (0-350 kg N ha-1). Shoot biomass and N concentration (Nc) of spring maize (Zea mays L.) were determined on six sampling dates during the growing season. Nitrogen application rate had a significant effect on aerial biomass accumulation and Nc. As expected, shoot Nc declined during the growing period. A critical N dilution curve (Nc = 36.5 W-0.48) was determined in China, which was a little different from those reported for maize in France and Germany. Besides, the N nutrition index (NNI) calculated from this critical N dilution curve was significantly related to relative grain yield, which can be expressed by a linear with plateau model (R2 = 0.66; P & 0.001). NNI can be used as a reliable indicator of the level of N deficiency during the growing season of maize. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Zhang W.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Li X.,Huazhong Agricultural University | Chen F.,CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden | Chen F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program | Lu J.,Huazhong Agricultural University
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2012

The management of mineral nutrition through fertilization is a key factor determining the ornamental value and marketability of potted plants. In this study, three cultivars of potted petunia (representing the double florabunda (DF), single milliflora (SM), and single florabunda (SF) types) were compared. Their dry matter accumulation characteristics, as well as NPK accumulation and distribution at different developmental stages were investigated in a soil-sand substrate. The different cultivars of petunia exhibited similar uptake ratios of N>K>P with mean NPK ratios of 1:0.11:0.71, but with differing levels of NPK accumulation in the total plant biomass. SF showed the highest accumulation of N, P and K nutrients and dry matter. There was a significant positive correlation between the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients, indicating that the nutrient demands of petunia plants may be estimated indirectly by dry matter accumulation. The maximum dry matter accumulation reached 0.24gd-1 for stems, 0.30gd-1 for leaves, 0.09gd-1 for roots, 0.18gd-1 for capsules and 0.02gd-1 for flowers. During the vegetative growth period, the mineral nutrients mostly accumulated in the leaves and stems. However, some of the mineral nutrients were translocated into the capsules and flowers at the flowering stage. N, P and K accumulation were 170.91mgplant-1, 15.34mgplant-1 and 136.71mgplant-1 respectively, before flowering stage, which possessed the highest accumulation of 441.6mgplant-1 (N), 76.48mgplant-1 (P) and 214.47mgplant-1 (K) during the senescence stage. Based on the experimental results, a recommended fertilization regime is 40% N, 80% P and 60% K as a base fertilizer, 30% N at bud stage, and 30% N, 20% P and 40% K after flowering. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Chuan L.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program | Zhao T.,Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

In order to make clear the recent status and trend of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in China, datasets from multiple field experiments and published literature were collected to study the agronomic characteristics related to grain yield, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency from the year 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean grain yield of wheat in 2000-2011 was 5950 kg/ha, while the N, P2O5 and K2O application rates were 172, 102 and 91 kg/ha on average, respectively. The decrease in N and P2O5 and increase in K2O balanced the nutrient supply and was the main reason for yield increase. The partial factor productivity (PFP, kg grain yield produced per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (PFP-N), P (PFP-P) and K (PFP-K) were in the ranges of 29.5~39.6, 43.4~74.9 and 44.1~76.5 kg/kg, respectively. While PFP-N showed no significant changes from 2000 to 2010, both PFP-P and PFP-K showed an increased trend over this period. The mean agronomic efficiency (AE, kg grain yield increased per unit of N, P2O5 or K2O applied) values of N (AEN), P (AEP) and K (AEK) were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5 kg/kg, respectively. The AE values demonstrated marked inter-Annual fluctuations, with the amplitude of fluctuation for AEN greater than those for AEP and AEK. The mean fertilizer recovery efficiency (RE, the fraction of nutrient uptake in aboveground plant dry matter to the nutrient of fertilizer application) values of N, P and K in the aboveground biomass were 33.1%, 24.3% and 28.4%, respectively. It was also revealed that different wheat ecological regions differ greatly in wheat productivity, fertilizer application and nutrient use efficiency. In summary, it was suggested that best nutrient management practices, i.e. fertilizer recommendation applied based on soil testing or yield response, with strategies to match the nutrient input with realistic yield and demand, or provided with the 4R's nutrient management (right time, right rate, right site and right fertilizer) should be adopted widely to improve the yield production and nutrient use efficiency. © 2016 Chuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Chuan L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,International Plant Nutrition Institute China Program | Pampolino M.F.,International Plant Nutrition Institute Southeast Asia Program | And 7 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2013

The inappropriate application of fertilizer has become a common phenomenon in wheat production systems in China and has led to nutrient imbalances, inefficient use and large losses to the environment. However, defining an appropriate fertilization rate remains the foundation to science-based nutrient management. This paper described a new fertilizer recommendation method for wheat in China based on yield response and agronomic efficiency using datasets from 2000 to 2011. The results showed that the mean yield responses of wheat to N, P and K were 1.7, 1.0 and 0.8t/ha, respectively. Nitrogen was the nutrient most limiting yield, followed by P and then K. The soil indigenous nutrient supplies were 122.6kg N/ha, 38.0kg P/ha, and 120.2kg K/ha. The mean agronomic efficiencies were 9.4, 10.2 and 6.5kg/kg for N, P and K, respectively. There was a significant negative exponential relationship between yield response and indigenous nutrient supply, and a significant negative linear correlation between yield response and relative yield. It was also demonstrated a quadratic equation between yield response (x) and agronomic efficiency (y) (P<0.05). The relationship between yield response (x) and agronomic efficiency (y) for N was yN=0.3729xN 2+6.1333xN+0.1438 (R2=0.76, n=601), for P was yP=0.5013xP 2+8.3209xP+2.3907 (R2=0.65, n=288), and for K was yK=1.6581xK 2+9.099xK+0.7668 (R2=0.58, n=379). These equations were all incorporated as part of the Nutrient Expert for Wheat fertilizer recommendation decision support system. The results of multiple field experiments helped to validate the feasibility of the recommendation model and concluded that Nutrient Expert for Wheat could be used as an alternative method to make fertilizer recommendations in China. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Ai C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liang G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | He P.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Biology and Fertility of Soils | Year: 2015

The effects of calcium-magnesium phosphate, rock phosphate, lime, fly ash, and animal manure as liming agents on the microbial community composition, enzyme activities involved in C, N, P, and S cycling and rice yields of acid sulfate soils were studied in a three-year field trial. Significant increases in soil pH caused by five ameliorants, particularly lime and fly ash, were observed after 3 years. Both soil exchangeable Al3+ and H+ were significantly (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with soil pH. Increased pH led to 61–102 % increase in rice yield after 2 and 3 years but not after 1 year. Soil phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles and enzyme activities were significantly changed after 3 years of application of the soil amendments. Enzyme activities increased along gradients of soil pH, indicating that the influences of inorganic or organic ameliorants on soil enzyme activities were mainly due to the effect on soil pH value. PLFA analysis showed that this pH effect played a more important role in shaping microbial community composition than specific effects of organic and inorganic amendments. All rice yield-associated enzymes and PLFA biomarkers (e.g., gram-negative bacteria and actinomycetes) were regulated by soil pH after 3 years. These results revealed that pH-induced changes in soil enzyme activity and microbial composition might be an important mechanism in alleviating acid stress in soil cropped to rice by various ameliorants. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Ai C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liang G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun J.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Soil Biology and Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Root-derived carbon (C) is considered as critical fuel supporting the interaction between plant and rhizosphere microbiome, but knowledge of how plant-microbe association responds to soil fertility changes in the agroecosystem is lacking. We report an integrative methodology in which stable isotope probing (SIP) and high-throughput pyrosequencing are combined to completely characterize the root-feeding bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of wheat grown in historical soils under three long-term (32-year) fertilization regimes. Wheat root-derived 13C was dominantly assimilated by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (notably Burkholderiales), accounting for nearly 70% of root-feeding microbiome. In contrast, rhizosphere bacteria utilizing original soil organic matter (SOM) possessed a higher diversity at phylum level. Some microbes (e.g. Bacteroidetes and Chloroflexi) enhancing in the rhizosphere were not actively recruited through selection by rhizodeposits, indicating a limited range of action of root exudates. Inorganic fertilization decreased the dependence of Actinobacteria on root-derived C, but significantly increased its proportion in SOM-feeding microbiome. Furthermore, significantly lower diversity of the root-feeding microbiome, but not the SOM-feeding microbiome, was observed under both organic and inorganic fertilizations. These results revealed that long-term fertilizations with increasing nutrients availability would decrease the preference of rhizosphere microbiome for root-derived substrates, leading to a simpler crop-microbe association. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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