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Lekouch I.,University Ibn Zohr | Lekouch I.,Paris West University Nanterre La Défense | Muselli M.,International Organization for Dew Utilization | Muselli M.,CNRS Environmental Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Energy | Year: 2011

One full year of dew, fog and rain collection measurements data were collected during 2007-2008 of in the dryland area of Mirleft, Morocco, for use as alternative or supplemental sources of water. Four passive dew condensers and a passive fog net collector were used, each with 1m2 surfaces. Meteorological data were collected in parallel. During the observation period, 178 dew events (18.85mm), 31 rain events (48.65mm) and 7 significant fog episodes (1.41mm) occurred, corresponding to almost 40% of the yearly rain contribution (48.7mm, 31 events). Chemical and biological analyses were carried out. Dew and rain pH were neutral (close to 7) and the total mineralization was considerable (dew: 560mg/L; rain: 230mg/L). Ca2+, K+, SO4 2- and NO3 - were of continental origin; Cl-, Na+ and Mg2+ were of sea origin. The ions concentration agrees with the World Health Organization recommendations for potable water. The biological analysis shows harmless vegetal spores and little contamination by animal/human bacteria. A cost analysis shows that, with little investment, the population of the arid and semi-arid coastal areas of south-western north Africa could make dew water a useful supplementary alternative water resource. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Lekouch I.,University Ibn Zohr | Lekouch I.,University Paris Diderot | Lekouch K.,University Ibn Zohr | Muselli M.,International Organization for Dew Utilization | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2012

Two coastal sites were investigated in an arid region of southwest Morocco to determine the amount of dew, fog and rain that could be collected from rooftops for household use. Systematic measurements were performed in Mirleft (43m asl, 200m from the coast) for 1year (May 1, 2007 to April 30, 2008) and in Id Ouasskssou (240m asl, 8km from the coast) for three summer months (July 1, 2007 to September 30, 2007). Dew water was collected using standard passive dew condensers and fog water by utilizing planar fog collectors. The wind flow was simulated on the rooftop to establish the location of the fog collector. At both sites, dew yields and, to a lesser extent, fog water yields, were found to be significant in comparison to rain events. Mirleft had 178 dew events (48.6% of the year, 18±2Lm -2 cumulated amount) and 20 fog episodes (5.5% of the year, 1.4Lm -2 with uncertainty -0.2/+0.4Lm -2 cumulated amount), corresponding to almost 40% of the yearly rain contribution (31 rain events, 8.5% of the year, 49±7mm cumulated amount). At Id Ouasskssou there were 50 dew events (7.1±0.3Lm -2, 54.3% frequency), 16 fog events (6.5Lm -2 with uncertainty -0.1/+1.8Lm -2, 17.4% frequency) and six rain events (16±2mm, 6.5% frequency).Meteorological data (air and dew point temperature and/or relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, cloud cover) were recorded continuously at Mirleft to assess the influence of local meteorological conditions on dew and fog formation. Using the set of collected data, a new model for dew yield prediction based on artificial neural networks was developed and tested for the Mirleft site. This model was then extrapolated to 15 major cities in Morocco to assess their potential for dew water collection. It was found that the location of the cities with respect to the Atlas mountain chain, which controls the circulation of the humid marine air, is the main factor that influences dew production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..

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