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Surendiran G.,University of Manitoba | Surendiran G.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | Goh C.,University of Manitoba | Goh C.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | And 14 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Objectives: Dietary modifications including healthy eating constitute one of the first line strategies for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential cardiovascular benefits of wild rice in male and female LDL-receptor-deficient (LDLr-KO) mice. Methods: Wild rice was used to create a semi-synthetic diet containing approximately 60% of total energy from carbohydrate. Two other experimental diets were similar in macronutrient composition, but containing either white rice or commercial carbohydrate sources. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. The mice were divided into six experimental groups and fed with these diets over 24 weeks. Results: Consumption of wild rice significantly reduced the size and severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots of male and female mice by 71 and 61% respectively, compared to the control group of the same gender. This effect was associated with significant reductions of plasma cholesterol levels by 15 and 40%, low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels by 12 and 42%, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels by 35 and 75% respectively, in male and female mice compared to the control group of the same gender. Increased fecal cholesterol excretion of up to 34% was also noted, compared to the control group of the same gender. However, the antiatherogenic effect of wild rice was not associated with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Conclusion: Current data suggest that cholesterol-lowering effects of wild rice may be the main factor for the prevention of atherogenesis in LDLr-KO mice. Additional studies are needed to understand the mechanism of action. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Moghadasian M.H.,University of Manitoba | Moghadasian M.H.,Canadian Center for Agri food Research in Health and Medicine | Moghadasian M.H.,International Nutrition Research Inc. | Alsaif M.,University of Manitoba | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Dietary modifications including healthy eating constitute one of the first line strategies for prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed anti-atherogenic effects of a combination of wild rice and phytosterols in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDL-r-KO) mice. Male LDL-r-KO mice were divided into four groups and fed with: (1) control diet; (2) the control diet containing 60% (w/w) wild rice; (3) the control diet containing 2% (w/w) phytosterols; or (4) the control diet containing both wild rice and phytosterols for 20 weeks. All diets were supplemented with 0.06% (w/w) dietary cholesterol. Blood samples, hearts, and feces were collected and used for biochemical and histological examination. Consumption of 60% (w/w) wild rice in combination with 2% (w/w) phytosterols significantly reduced the size and severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic roots as compared to those in the control group. This effect was associated with significant reductions in plasma total, LDL and VLDL cholesterol concentrations as well as an increase in fecal cholesterol excretion. In conclusion, the dietary combination of wild rice and phytosterols prevents atherogenesis in this animal model. Further investigations are needed to understand mechanisms of action and potential clinical outcome of such dietary intervention. © 2016 . Source


Monteiro J.,University of Guelph | Askarian F.,University of Manitoba | Nakamura M.T.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Moghadasian M.H.,University of Manitoba | And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Alpha-linolenic acid's (ALA) biological activity is poorly understood and primarily associated with its conversion to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) initiates the metabolism of linoleic acid (LA) and ALA to arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA, respectively. In this study, D6D knock-out (D6KO) mice were used to evaluate the effects of ALA-rich oils in preventing hepatic steatosis and inflammation. D6KO and wild-type mice were fed 1 of 4 high-fat (14% w/w) diets: (i) lard (LD, 0% n-3 PUFA), (ii) canola oil + ARASCO (CD, 8% ALA), (iii) flax seed oil + ARASCO (FD, 55% ALA), (iv) menhaden oil (MD, 30% EPA/DHA) for 8 or 20 weeks. Livers of D6KO mice consuming CD and FD were depleted of EPA/DHA, and enriched in ALA. Markers of fat accumulation and inflammation were lowest in the MD-fed mice, at 8 and 20 weeks, regardless of genotype. CD- and FD-fed D6KO groups were found to have lower liver lipid accumulation and lower hepatic inflammation relative to the LD-fed mice at 8 weeks. In conclusion, while MD was the most protective, this study shows that ALA can act independently on risk factors associated with the development of fatty liver disease. Source


Cleverley K.,University of Manitoba | Du X.,University of Manitoba | Premecz S.,University of Manitoba | Le K.,University of Manitoba | And 8 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Owing to their spontaneous development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoEKO) are one of the best studied animal models for this disease. Little is known about the utility of various omega-3 fatty acid regimens, in particular fish oils, in preventing cardiac disease in ApoEKO mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with either safflower oil (control), fish oil, flaxseed oil, or designed oil in ApoEKO mice fed a high-fat diet for a total of 16 weeks. In-vivo cardiac function was assessed weekly using murine echocardiography. Blood pressure, plasma lipid levels, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were serially measured. The results show that ApoEKO mice fed fish oil demonstrated an increase in left ventricular wall thickness as a result of increased afterload. Despite chronic treatment with fish oil over 16 weeks, blood pressure increased in ApoEKO mice by 20% compared with the baseline. Both echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and biochemical increase in BNP levels confirmed diastolic dysfunction in ApoEKO mice fed fish oil. This suggests that high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil may lead to adverse cardiovascular effects in ApoE deficient mice. Source


Trademark
International Nutrition Research Company | Date: 2013-01-03

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