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Greig A.L.,Four Elements Consulting LLC | Carey S.,International Molybdenum Association
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

Purpose: In 2001, the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) initiated their life cycle assessment (LCA) program performing cradle-to-gate life cycle inventories (LCIs) of three molybdenum metallurgical products, followed by LCIs of eight molybdenum chemicals and an update to the metallurgical LCIs. From 2012 to 2014, IMOA participated in a multi-metal industry initiative to harmonize the methodological approach to metal-related LCAs. This paper describes some of IMOA’s conclusions formed from its program and, coupled with its involvement in the multi-metal initiative, provides some lessons learned. Methods: For this paper, IMOA evaluated the benefits of its LCI program, including its ability to communicate effectively with member companies and stakeholders on the development, use, and application of life cycle data. Likewise, IMOA developed the competence to recognize and provide input on potentially inappropriate use of LCA. IMOA performed a literature review to highlight some of the scientific research using the molybdenum LCI data. IMOA also reviewed the metal industry’s guidance document to provide its perspective on it, including similarities, differences, and substantiation of elements of the four topic areas. Results and discussion: The metal industry’s guidance document identified four topic areas as essential for alignment with respect to metal-related LCAs: (1) system boundaries, (2) coproduct modelling, (3) life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and (4) metals recycling modelling. IMOA is largely in agreement with the approaches described in the document. The paper provides examples of how these have been applied to LCAs on Mo-bearing products as well as examples of how some LCA work can benefit from the guidance document. Conclusions: Having taken part in the harmonization effort, IMOA is poised to educate its member companies and stakeholders about some of the challenging issues encountered in LCA and will continue to lead through active industry participation. IMOA supplies its LCI data via a formal request process which enables open dialogue with stakeholders and LCA practitioners while providing IMOA with insights into how its products fit into the broader lifecycle context and facilitating stakeholders’ awareness of LCA and metals. © 2015 The Author(s) Source

Oorts K.,A.R.C.H.E | Smolders E.,Catholic University of Leuven | McGrath S.P.,Rothamsted Research | Van Gestel C.A.M.,VU University Amsterdam | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Chemistry

An extensive testing programme on the toxicity of sodium molybdate dihydrate in soil was initiated to comply with the European REACH Regulation. The molybdate toxicity was assayed with 11 different bioassays, 10 different soils, soil chemical studies on aging reactions, and toxicity tests before and after 1-year equilibration in field conditions. Differences in molybdate toxicity among soils were best explained by soil pH and clay content. A correction factor of 2.0 was selected to account for the difference in molybdate toxicity between laboratory and field conditions due to leaching and aging processes. Toxicity thresholds were determined as the HC5-50 (median hazardous concentration for 5% of the species, i.e. median 95% protection level) derived from the species sensitivity distribution of ecotoxicity data after bioavailability corrections. Uncertainty analysis illustrated that the HC5-50 provides a robust and ecologically relevant predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for risk characterisation. The 10th and 90th percentiles for site-specific PNEC values in European agricultural soil are 10.7 and 168 mg Mokg-1 dry weight respectively based on a large survey of metal concentrations and soil properties in arable land soils. Total soil Mo concentrations in these soils are below corresponding PNEC values at most locations, suggesting no regional risks of molybdate to soil organisms at this scale. The information presented can be used in the EU risk-assessment framework as well as for national and international regulatory purposes for the setting of soil quality criteria based on total molybdenum concentrations, soil pH and clay content. © 2016 CSIRO. Source

Mesquita T.,Ugitech Research Center | Mesquita T.,Grenoble Institute of Technology | Chauveau E.,Ugitech Research Center | Mantel M.,Ugitech Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Revue de Metallurgie. Cahiers D'Informations Techniques

The use of stainless steels as concrete reinforcement is becoming increasingly popular in coastal and marine constructions in order to prevent corrosion induced by chloride ions penetrating into the concrete. In these highly aggressive situations, the lean duplex stainless steels have been extensively employed due to their high mechanical and corrosion resistances. However, the influence of Mo addition on pitting corrosion resistance of these steels is not clearly understood in alkaline chloride conditions even if this element is widely associated to an increasing corrosion resistance in acidic and neutral environments. Therefore, understanding Mo mechanism on corrosion resistance in alkaline media is hence of major importance to the setting of optimized alloy composition. The present work aims to study the effect of Mo addition on pitting corrosion properties of lean duplex stainless steels in alkaline environments (concrete). The results are discussed with respect to the influence of Mo addition on pitting potential for two industrial duplex alloys (1.4362 and 1.4462) in several aggressive media mainly in synthetic, chlorinated and carbonated solution simulating concrete pore environments (pH10 solution with carbonates and chlorides ions). In order to establish the real role of Mo addition on lean duplex corrosion and passivation properties, the corrosion behaviors of two specific laboratory lean duplex alloys, which the only difference between then is the amount of Mo (0 and 3% wt. Mo), are also studied. Furthermore, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to verify which phase of duplex microstructure (ferritic or austenitic) is mostly susceptible to the pit nucleation in these corrosion conditions as the role of Mo is probably different to each simple phase. © EDP Sciences, 2011. Source

Mesquita T.J.,Joseph Fourier University | Chauveau E.,CRU Ugitech | Mantel M.,CRU Ugitech | Kinsman N.,International Molybdenum Association | And 2 more authors.
Materials Chemistry and Physics

The influence of Mo addition on pitting corrosion resistance of lean duplex stainless steels is not clearly understood in alkaline chloride conditions even if this element is widely recognized to increase corrosion resistance in acidic and neutral environments. This work aims to study the effect of Mo on pitting corrosion of lean duplex stainless steels in synthetic concrete pore solutions simulating degraded concrete. Results are discussed with respect to the influence of Mo on pitting potential for two industrial alloys in chloride rich and carbonated solution simulating concrete pore environments. To establish the real effect of Mo addition on lean duplex corrosion and passivation properties, two specific laboratory lean duplex alloys, for which the only difference is strictly the Mo content, are also studied. Mo presented a strong positive influence on the pitting corrosion resistance of industrial and laboratory lean duplex stainless steels in all studied chloride-rich solutions, but its effect is as less pronounced as the pH increases. In presence of Mo, pitting initiates and propagates preferentially in the austenitic phase at high temperature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Murray F.J.,Murray and Associates | Sullivan F.M.,Harrington House | Tiwary A.K.,Chevron | Carey S.,International Molybdenum Association
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology

This study investigated the subchronic toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) in Sprague-Dawley rats given sodium molybdate dihydrate in the diet for 90days at dose levels of 0, 5, 17 or 60mgMo/kgbw/day. The study complied with OECD Test Guideline (TG) 408, with additional examination of estrus cycles and sperm count, motility, and morphology from OECD TG 416. The overall no-observed-adverse-effect level was 17mgMo/kgbw/day, based on effects on body weight, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency and renal histopathology (females only) at 60mgMo/kgbw/day. No treatment-related adverse effects on reproductive organ weights or histopathology, estrus cycles or sperm parameters were observed at any dose level. No adverse effects were observed in the high dose animals after the 60-day recovery period, with the exception that male rats did not fully recover from reduced body weight. Serum blood, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for molybdenum, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt and selenium; high levels of molybdenum and copper were found in the serum, blood, liver and kidneys of rats treated with 60mgMo/kgbw/day. In conclusion, the LOAEL and NOAEL for molybdenum were determined to be 60 and 17mgMo/kgbw/day, respectively. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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