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International Molybdenum Association

High Peak, United Kingdom
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News Article | May 24, 2017
Site: www.materialstoday.com

South America became the biggest molybdenum producing area in 2016 with 178.5 million lbs, a 14% increase on the total for 2015, according to new figures from the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA). China was fractionally behind with 178.3 million lbs, a fall of 2% compared with the previous year. North America was once again the third largest producing region after production fell from 140.1 million lbs in 2015 to 110.3 million lbs in 2016. Production in other countries fell from 39.1 million lbs in 2015 to 36 million lbs in 2016. In total, global use of molybdenum in 2016 rose to 512.6 million lbs, up from the previous year’s total of 510.1 million lbs, according to figures from However, global production slowed in 2016, reaching a total of 503.2 million lbs, down from 517.1 million lbs in 2015. The greatest usage of molybdenum in 2016 was in China, with a total of 186 million lbs, compared with 177.6 million lbs in 2015. Europe recorded the second biggest share with 131.4 million lbs, down from 135.1 million lbs in 2015. Usage in the USA was 52.1 million lbs, followed by Japan at 48 million lbs. Usage in the CIS was 18.9 million lbs, with other countries together totalling 76.2 million lbs. Figures for the fourth quarter of 2016, also released today, saw total molybdenum production increase by 10% from 128.1 million lbs in Q3 to 140.7 in Q4. Production in China increased from 45.9 million lbs to 53.3 million lbs, a 16% increase on the previous quarter and a 35% increase compared with Q4 in 2015. Production in South America was static at 45.4 million lbs, while production in North America was up from 27.5 million lbs in Q3 to 32.7 million lbs in Q4, a 19% increase on the previous quarter and a 14% increase from the same quarter last year. Production in other countries increased fractionally from 9.3 million lbs in Q3 to 9.4 million lbs in Q4. Global usage increased 9% from 128.1 million lbs in Q3 to 139.4 million lbs in Q4. Usage in China increased from 45.4 million lbs in Q3 to 55.7 million lbs in Q4, an increase of 23% since the previous quarter and up 29% from the same quarter last year. Usage in Europe increased from 31.8 million lbs in Q3 to 33.8 in Q4, an increase of 6% since the previous quarter and up 3% from the same quarter last year. Usage in USA and Japan was 12.8 and 12.4 million lbs respectively in Q4. In the CIS and other countries, use decreased fractionally to 4.6 and 20.2 million lbs respectively. ‘These figures reflect the continuing weaker demand from the oil and gas industry in 2016,’ said Tim Outteridge, IMOA’s secretary-general.’ Both production and use were lower than the record highs of 2014. However, annual global use increased slightly, and both production and use increased in every quarter in 2016.’ This story is reprinted from material from the IMOA, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.


The freshwater and marine long-term ecotoxicity datasets used in the European REACH registration dossiers for molybdenum and molybdenum compounds resulted in the derivation of a HC5,50%,freshwater (38.2 mg Mo/L) and HC5,50%,marine (5.70 mg Mo/L) by means of the statistical extrapolation method. Both datasets, however, did not meet the US-EPA information requirements for deriving Final Chronic Values (FCV) that were based on chronic data. US-EPA compliance was achieved by generating chronic no-effect data for the freshwater benthic amphipod Hyalella azteca and the marine inland silverside fish Menidia beryllina, using sodium molybdate dihydrate as test substance. A 42d-EC10 of 44.6 mg Mo/L for reproduction was determined in a water-only exposure with H. azteca. For M. beryllina, a 37d-NOEC of 139 mg mMo/L for standard length and blotted wet weight was found. Other endpoints (e.g., survival, hatching success) proved to be less sensitive. Data were added to the existing chronic toxicity datasets, together with new long-term no-effect values that were identified in open literature for brown trout Salmo trutta, the marine alga Isochrysis galbana, the marine snail Nassarius dorsatus and the marine barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. The updated data sets resulted in a freshwater and marine HC5,50% of 35.7 and 6.85 mg Mo/L, respectively. The same data sets were also used for the determination of US-EPA FCVs, where the FVCfreshwater was 36.1 mg/L, and the FCVmarine was 3.85 mg Mo/L. As the Final Plant Values for both aquatic environments were higher than their respective FCVs, the Criterion Continuous Concentration (CCC) for molybdenum is equal to the FCV. © 2017 The Authors


Greig A.L.,Four Elements Consulting LLC | Carey S.,International Molybdenum Association
International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment | Year: 2015

Purpose: In 2001, the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) initiated their life cycle assessment (LCA) program performing cradle-to-gate life cycle inventories (LCIs) of three molybdenum metallurgical products, followed by LCIs of eight molybdenum chemicals and an update to the metallurgical LCIs. From 2012 to 2014, IMOA participated in a multi-metal industry initiative to harmonize the methodological approach to metal-related LCAs. This paper describes some of IMOA’s conclusions formed from its program and, coupled with its involvement in the multi-metal initiative, provides some lessons learned. Methods: For this paper, IMOA evaluated the benefits of its LCI program, including its ability to communicate effectively with member companies and stakeholders on the development, use, and application of life cycle data. Likewise, IMOA developed the competence to recognize and provide input on potentially inappropriate use of LCA. IMOA performed a literature review to highlight some of the scientific research using the molybdenum LCI data. IMOA also reviewed the metal industry’s guidance document to provide its perspective on it, including similarities, differences, and substantiation of elements of the four topic areas. Results and discussion: The metal industry’s guidance document identified four topic areas as essential for alignment with respect to metal-related LCAs: (1) system boundaries, (2) coproduct modelling, (3) life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and (4) metals recycling modelling. IMOA is largely in agreement with the approaches described in the document. The paper provides examples of how these have been applied to LCAs on Mo-bearing products as well as examples of how some LCA work can benefit from the guidance document. Conclusions: Having taken part in the harmonization effort, IMOA is poised to educate its member companies and stakeholders about some of the challenging issues encountered in LCA and will continue to lead through active industry participation. IMOA supplies its LCI data via a formal request process which enables open dialogue with stakeholders and LCA practitioners while providing IMOA with insights into how its products fit into the broader lifecycle context and facilitating stakeholders’ awareness of LCA and metals. © 2015 The Author(s)


Murray F.J.,Murray and Associates | Sullivan F.M.,Harrington House | Tiwary A.K.,Chevron | Carey S.,International Molybdenum Association
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2014

This study investigated the subchronic toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) in Sprague-Dawley rats given sodium molybdate dihydrate in the diet for 90days at dose levels of 0, 5, 17 or 60mgMo/kgbw/day. The study complied with OECD Test Guideline (TG) 408, with additional examination of estrus cycles and sperm count, motility, and morphology from OECD TG 416. The overall no-observed-adverse-effect level was 17mgMo/kgbw/day, based on effects on body weight, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency and renal histopathology (females only) at 60mgMo/kgbw/day. No treatment-related adverse effects on reproductive organ weights or histopathology, estrus cycles or sperm parameters were observed at any dose level. No adverse effects were observed in the high dose animals after the 60-day recovery period, with the exception that male rats did not fully recover from reduced body weight. Serum blood, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for molybdenum, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt and selenium; high levels of molybdenum and copper were found in the serum, blood, liver and kidneys of rats treated with 60mgMo/kgbw/day. In conclusion, the LOAEL and NOAEL for molybdenum were determined to be 60 and 17mgMo/kgbw/day, respectively. © 2013 The Authors.


Heijerick D.G.,ARCHE Assessing Risks of Chemicals | Regoli L.,International Molybdenum Association | Carey S.,International Molybdenum Association
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

The REACH Molybdenum Consortium initiated an extensive research program in order to generate robust PNECs, based on the SSD approach, for both the freshwater and marine environments. This activity was part of the REACH dossier preparation and to form the basis for scientific dialogues with other national and international regulatory authorities. Chronic ecotoxicity data sets for the freshwater and marine environments served as starting point for the derivation of PNECs for both compartments, in accordance with the recommended derivation procedures established by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The HC5,50%s that were derived from the generated Species Sensitivity Distributions were 38.2mgMo/L and 5.75mgMo/L for the freshwater and marine water compartment, respectively. Uncertainty analysis on both data sets and available data on bioaccumulation at high exposure levels justified an assessment factor of 3 on both HC5,50% leading to a PNECfreshwater of 12.7mgMo/L and a PNECmarine of 1.92mgMo/L. As there are currently insufficient ecotoxicological data available for the derivation of PNECs in the sediment compartment, the equilibrium partitioning method was applied; typical KD-values for both the freshwater and marine compartments were identified and combined with the respective PNEC, leading to a PNECsediment of 22,600mg/kg dry weight and 1980mg/kg dry weight for freshwater and marine sediments, respectively. The chronic data sets were also used for the derivation of final chronic values using the procedures that are outlined by the US Environmental Protection Agency for deriving such water benchmarks. Comparing PNECs with FCVs showed that both methodologies result in comparable protective concentration levels for molybdenum in the environment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Mesquita T.J.,Joseph Fourier University | Chauveau E.,CRU Ugitech | Mantel M.,CRU Ugitech | Kinsman N.,International Molybdenum Association | And 2 more authors.
Materials Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2012

The influence of Mo addition on pitting corrosion resistance of lean duplex stainless steels is not clearly understood in alkaline chloride conditions even if this element is widely recognized to increase corrosion resistance in acidic and neutral environments. This work aims to study the effect of Mo on pitting corrosion of lean duplex stainless steels in synthetic concrete pore solutions simulating degraded concrete. Results are discussed with respect to the influence of Mo on pitting potential for two industrial alloys in chloride rich and carbonated solution simulating concrete pore environments. To establish the real effect of Mo addition on lean duplex corrosion and passivation properties, two specific laboratory lean duplex alloys, for which the only difference is strictly the Mo content, are also studied. Mo presented a strong positive influence on the pitting corrosion resistance of industrial and laboratory lean duplex stainless steels in all studied chloride-rich solutions, but its effect is as less pronounced as the pH increases. In presence of Mo, pitting initiates and propagates preferentially in the austenitic phase at high temperature. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Heijerick D.G.,ARCHE Assessing Risks of Chemicals | Regoli L.,International Molybdenum Association | Stubblefield W.,Oregon State University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO 4 2-). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC marine using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na 2MoO 4·2H 2O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC 10 levels ranged between 4.4mgMo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174mgMo/L (oyster C. gigas).Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC 5,50% (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mgMo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and international regulatory purposes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Global production of molybdenum increased to 132.0 million pounds in the third quarter of 2016, up 4% from 126.6 million pounds in the previous quarter, and up 2% compared with the same period in 2015, according to new figures released by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA). Global use of molybdenum in the third quarter also increased to 130.4 million pounds, up 2% from 127.8 million pounds in the previous quarter and up 3% compared with the same period in 2015. The figures also show an increase in both production and use for the third successive quarter. China was the biggest producer, with 45.9 million pounds in the third quarter of 2016, up 3% from 44.5 million pounds in the previous quarter, and static compared with the same period in 2015. Production in South America came a very close second at 45.4 million pounds, up 5% from 43.2 million pounds in the previous quarter, and an increase of 18% compared to the same period in 2015. Production in North America was 27.6 million pounds, up 7% from 25.7 million pounds in the previous quarter, but 21% less than in the same quarter in 2015. Production in other countries was static at 13.2 million pounds. China remained the biggest user, at 41.6 million pounds in the third quarter of 2016, down 2% from 42.4 million pounds in the previous quarter, and 6% less than the same period in 2015. Europe was the second largest user at 31.8 million pounds, down 3% from 32.8 million pounds in the previous quarter, and down 3% compared to the same period in 2015. Usage in the USA was 17.0 million pounds, an increase of 12% from 15.2 million pounds in the previous quarter, and 30% higher compared to the same quarter in 2015, while usage in Japan increased by 5% to 12.1 million pounds, 8% less than in the same period last year. Usage in the CIS countries fell slightly to 4.7 million pounds, while usage in other countries increased from 21.0 to 23.2 million pounds. This story is reprinted from material from the IMOA, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.


News Article | November 17, 2015
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Global production of molybdenum increased to 142.1 million pounds in the second quarter of 2015, up 10% from 128.8 million pounds in the previous quarter, but still 2% lower compared with the second quarter in 2014, according to figures released today by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA). Global use of molybdenum fell slightly to 126.3 million pounds, down 1% from 127.3 million pounds in the previous quarter and 12% lower compared with the second quarter in 2014. China remained the biggest producer, with production increasing from 46.3 million pounds in the first quarter of 2015 to 52.3 million pounds in the second quarter, an increase of 13% and some 5% higher compared with the same quarter in 2014. Production in North America rose from 37.8 million pounds in the first quarter of 2015 to 38.1 million pounds in the second quarter, an increase of 1%, but some 25% less compared with the same period in 2014. Production in South America increased from 34.2 million pounds in the first quarter of 2015 to 41.3 million pounds in the second quarter. Production in other countries was static at 10.5 million pounds. China remained the biggest user, with 43.4 million pounds in the second quarter of 2015, up from 42.4 million pounds in the first quarter but down 15% compared with the second quarter last year. Europe was the second largest user with 34.1 million pounds, down slightly from 34.4 million pounds in the previous quarter, and down 10% compared with the second quarter last year. Usage in the USA decreased from 14.1 to 13.4 million pounds, down 5% compared with the previous quarter and down 8% compared with the second quarter in 2014. Usage in Japan was 12.5 million pounds, down 6% from 13.3 million pounds in the first quarter and down 19% compared with the second quarter last year. Usage in the CIS countries decreased slightly by 3% to 5.5 million pounds, while usage in other countries remained static at 17.4 million pounds. This story is reprinted from material from the IMOA, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.


News Article | March 14, 2016
Site: www.materialstoday.com

Tim Outteridge, secretary-general of the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA), says that end user demand for molybdenum could increase by an average of 3.6% in the period to 2024. In a presentation at the Argus Metals Week conference in London, entitled ‘Molybdenum market overview and downstream uses’, Mr Outteridge reviewed global molybdenum production and use in 2015, noting a reduction of 9% in use and  10% in production compared to 2014. He commented that the reduction in use was principally related to a significant fall in demand from the oil and gas sector. This was due to the effect of the low oil price and its impact on exploration and production where molybdenum-bearing steels are widely used. Slower growth in China had also had an impact. However, most other sectors showed only small reductions, with a couple showing modest increases. Outteridge then outlined a number of sectors expected to generate future demand for molybdenum through use in applications influenced by global megatrends. Key roles Automobile lightweighting is one such area, where thinner gauge high-strength steels, many of which contain molybdenum, are used to reduce total vehicle weight for greater efficiency. Molybdenum also plays a key role in hydrodesulfurization of fuels. Using molybdenum-based catalysts, this technology has already achieved a 100-fold reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions from the European vehicle sector since 1993 and will play an important role in the future as emissions standards are tightened across the world. Thanks to its resistance to corrosion, strength and performance at high temperatures as an alloy, molybdenum finds many uses in power generation, including boosting the efficiency of coal-fired power stations and in a range of applications in renewable energy, including solar, wind and hydropower. Non-fossil energy generation has grown considerably in recent years and is predicted to more than double in the period to 2020. This story uses material from the IMOA, with editorial changes made by Materials Today. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent those of Elsevier.

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