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Borjesson M.,Sahlgrenska University Hospital | Kouidi E.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki | Dugmore D.,Wellness International Medical Center | Sharma S.,St George's, University of London | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation | Year: 2011

Regular aerobic exercise at moderate intensities and an increased physical fitness are associated with a reduced risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary events in middle-aged individuals. In contrast, moderate and vigorous physical exertion is associated with an increased risk for cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death in individuals harbouring cardiovascular disease. The risk-benefit ratio may differ in relation to the individual's age, fitness level, and presence of cardiovascular disease; sedentary individuals with underlying coronary artery disease are at greatest risk. The intention of the present position stand of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation is to encourage individuals to participate in regular physical activity and derive the benefits of physical exercise while minimizing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Therefore, the aim is to establish the most practical method of cardiovascular evaluation in middle-age/senior individuals, who are contemplating exercise or who are already engaged in nonprofessional competitive or recreational leisure sporting activity. These recommendations rely on existing scientific evidence, and in the absence of such, on expert consensus. The methodology of how middle-aged and older individuals should be evaluated appropriately before engaging in regular physical activity is both complex and controversial. On practical grounds the consensus panel recommend that such evaluation should vary according to the individual's cardiac risk profile and the intended level of physical activity. Self assessment of the habitual physical activity level and of the risk factors, are recommended for screening of large populations. Individuals deemed to be at risk require further evaluation by a qualified physician. In senior/adult individuals with an increased risk for coronary events, maximal exercise testing (and possibly further evaluations) is advocated. Hopefully, the recommendations in this paper provide a practical solution for facilitating safe exercise prescription in senior/adults. © The European Society of Cardiology 2011.


Vanhees L.,Catholic University of Leuven | Rauch B.,Center for Ambulatory Cardiac and Angiologic Rehabilitation | Piepoli M.,Guglielmo da Saliceto Hospital | Van Buuren F.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology | Year: 2012

The beneficial effect of exercise training and exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on symptom-free exercise capacity, cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, quality of life, general healthy lifestyle, and reduction of depressive symptoms and psychosocial stress is nowadays well recognized. However, it remains largely obscure, which characteristics of physical activity (PA) and exercise training - frequency, intensity, time (duration), type (mode), and volume (dose: intensity × duration) of exercise - are the most effective. The present paper, therefore, will deal with these exercise characteristics in the management of individuals with cardiovascular disease, i.e. coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure patients, but also in patients with congenital or valvular heart disease. Based on the current literature, and if sufficient evidence is available, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding frequency, intensity, time and type of PA, and safety aspects during exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease. This paper is the third in a series of three papers, all devoted to the same theme: the importance of the exercise characteristics in the management of cardiovascular health. Part I is directed to the general population and Part II to individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. In general, PA recommendations and exercise training programmes for patients with coronary artery disease or chronic heart failure need to be tailored to the individual's exercise capacity and risk profile, with the aim to reach and maintain the individually highest fitness level possible and to perform endurance exercise training 30-60 min daily (3-5 days per week) in combination with resistance training 2-3 times a week. Because of the frequently reported dose-response relationship between training effect and exercise intensity, one should seek sufficiently high training intensities, although more scientific evidence on effect sizes and safety is warranted. At present, there is insufficient data to give more specific recommendations on type, dosage, and intensity of exercise in some other cardiovascular diseases, such as congenital heart disease, valve disease, cardiomyopathies, channelopathies, and patients with implanted devices. © 2011 The European Society of Cardiology.


Vanhees L.,Catholic University of Leuven | De Sutter J.,AZ Maria Middelares Hospital | Geladas N.,National and Kapodistrian University of Athens | Doyle F.,Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology | Year: 2012

Over the last decades, more and more evidence is accumulated that physical activity (PA) and exercise interventions are essential components in primary and secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease. However, it is less clear whether and which type of PA and exercise intervention (aerobic exercise, dynamic resistive exercise, or both) or characteristic of exercise (frequency, intensity, time or duration, and volume) would yield more benefit in achieving cardiovascular health. The present paper, as the first of a series of three, will make specific recommendations on the importance of these characteristics for cardiovascular health in the population at large. The guidance offered in this series of papers is aimed at medical doctors, health practitioners, kinesiologists, physiotherapists and exercise physiologists, politicians, public health policy makers, and the individual member of the public. Based on previous and the current literature, recommendations from the European Association on Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation are formulated regarding type, volume, and intensity of PA and exercise. © 2012 The European Society of Cardiology.

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