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Seitz F.,TU Munich | Kirschner S.,TU Munich | Neubersch D.,International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling | Neubersch D.,University of Hamburg
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2012

The geophysical interpretation of observed time series of Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is commonly based on numerical models that describe and balance variations of angular momentum in various subsystems of the Earth. Naturally, models are dependent on geometrical, rheological and physical parameters. Many of these are weakly determined from other models or observations. In our study we present an adaptive Kalman filter approach for the improvement of parameters of the dynamic Earth system model DyMEG which acts as a simulator of ERP. In particular we focus on the improvement of the pole tide Love number k 2. In the frame of a sensitivity analysis k2 has been identified as one of the most crucial parameters of DyMEG since it directly influences the modeled Chandler oscillation. At the same time k2 is one of the most uncertain parameters in the model. Our simulations with DyMEG cover a period of 60 years after which a steady state of k2 is reached. The estimate for k2, accounting for the anelastic response of the Earth's mantle and the ocean, is 0.3531 + 0.0030i. We demonstrate that the application of the improved parameter k2 in DyMEG leads to significantly better results for polar motion than the original value taken from the Conventions of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). ©2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Source

Li C.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Li C.,International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling | von Storch J.-S.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Marotzke J.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2013

We integrate the coupled climate model ECHAM5/MPIOM to equilibrium under atmospheric CO2 quadrupling. The equilibrium global-mean surface-temperature change is 10. 8 K. The surface equilibrates within about 1,200 years, the deep ocean within 5,000 years. The impact of the deep ocean on the equilibrium surface-temperature response is illustrated by the difference between ECHAM5/MPIOM and ECHAM5 coupled with slab ocean model (ECHAM5/SOM). The equilibrium global-mean surface temperature response is 11.1 K in ECHAM5/SOM and is thus 0. 3 K higher than in ECHAM5/MPIOM. ECHAM5/MPIOM shows less warming over the northern-hemisphere mid and high latitudes, but larger warming over the tropical ocean and especially over the southern-hemisphere high latitudes. ECHAM5/MPIOM shows similar polar amplification in both the Arctic and the Antarctic, in contrast to ECHAM5/SOM, which shows stronger polar amplification in the northern hemisphere. The southern polar warming in ECHAM5/MPIOM is greatly delayed by Antarctic deep-ocean warming due to convective and isopycnal mixing. The equilibrium ocean temperature warming under CO2 quadrupling is around 8.0 K and is near-uniform with depth. The global-mean steric sea-level rise is 5.8 m in equilibrium; of this, 2.3 m are due to the deep-ocean warming after the surface temperature has almost equilibrated. This result suggests that the surface temperature change is a poor predictor for steric sea-level change in the long term. The effective climate response method described in Gregory et al. (2004) is evaluated with our simulation, which shows that their method to estimate the equilibrium climate response is accurate to within 10 %. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Cremades R.,University of Hamburg | Cremades R.,International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling | Wang J.,CAS Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research | Morris J.,Cranfield University
Earth System Dynamics | Year: 2015

The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting modern irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in the country. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of governmental support and economic incentives on the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China, with a focus on household-based irrigation technology and community-based irrigation technology. Based on a unique data set collected at household and village levels from seven provinces, the results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption in crop sown areas was not high, even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analysis results revealed that governmental support instruments like subsidies and extension services policies have played an important role in promoting the adoption of modern irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played a significant but contradictory role in promoting the adoption of different types of modern irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to the substitution effect that is, the higher rate of adoption of household-based irrigation technology leads to lower incentives for investment in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications. © Author(s) 2015. Source

Saeed S.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Saeed S.,International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling | Muller W.A.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Hagemann S.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Jacob D.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2011

This study examines the influence of the mid-latitude circulation on the surface heat low (HL) and associated monsoon rainfall over northwestern India and Pakistan using the ERA40 data and high resolution (T106L31) climate model ECHAM5 simulation. Special emphasis is given to the surface HL which forms over Pakistan and adjoining areas of India, Iran and Afghanistan during the summer season. A heat low index (HLI) is defined to depict the surface HL. The HLI displays significant correlations with the upper level mid-latitude circulation over western central Asia and low level monsoon circulation over Arabian Sea and acts as a bridge connecting the mid-latitude wave train to the Indian summer monsoon. A time-lagged singular value decomposition analysis reveals that the eastward propagation of the mid-latitude circumglobal wave train (CGT) influences the surface pressure anomalies over the Indian domain. The largest low (negative) pressure anomalies over the western parts of the HL region (i.e., Iran and Afghanistan) occur in conjunction with the upper level anomalous high that develops over western-central Asia during the positive phase of the CGT. The composite analysis also reveals a significant increase in the low pressure anomalies over Iran and Afghanistan during the positive phase of CGT. The westward increasing low pressure anomalies with its north-south orientation provokes enormous north-south pressure gradient (lower pressure over land than over sea). This in turn enables the moist southerly flow from the Arabian Sea to penetrate farther northward over northwestern India and Pakistan. A monsoon trough like conditions develops over northwestern India and Pakistan where the moist southwesterly flow from the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf converge. The convergence in association with the orographic uplifting expedites convection and associated precipitation over northwestern India and Pakistan. The high resolution climate model ECHAM5 simulation also underlines the proposed findings and mechanism. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

Saeed S.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Saeed S.,International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modeling | Muller W.A.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | Hagemann S.,Max Planck Institute for Meteorology | And 4 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

The present study examines the precipitation variability over the South Asian monsoon heat low region and associated teleconnections using high resolution (T106L31) climate simulations performed with the ECHAM5 model. It is found that an intensification of the heat low in response to enhanced precipitation/convection over northwestern India-Pakistan (NWIP) can induce large-scale circulation anomalies that resemble the northern summer circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) wave-like pattern extending well into the Asian monsoon region. Accordingly the wave-like response to rainfall increase over the heat low region is associated with anomalous ascent over northern China and descent over the South China Sea. Additionally, small but statistically significant lead-lag correlations between the heat low and precipitation over northern China further suggest that the detected signal pertains to the true features of the process. On the other hand, suppressed convection and rainfall over the heat low region do not reveal any significant large-scale circulation anomalies. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union. Source

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