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Geng H.,Washington State University | Geng H.,Xinjiang Agricultural University | Beecher B.S.,Washington State University | He Z.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Kernel texture is a major factor influencing the classification and end use properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and is mainly controlled by the Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. Recently, a new puroindoline gene, Puroindoline b-2 (Pin b-2), was identified. In this study, 388 wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines from the U. S. Pacific Northwest were investigated for frequencies of Puroindoline D1 alleles and Pinb-2 variants 2 and 3. Results indicated that Pinb-D1b (74.0%) was the predominant genotype among hard wheats (N = 196), the only other hard allele encountered was Pina-D1b (26. 0%). Across all varieties, Pinb-2v3 was the predominant genotype (84.5%) compared with Pinb-2v2 (15.5%). However, among 240 winter wheat varieties (124 soft white, 15 club, 68 hard red and 33 hard white varieties), all carried Pinb-2v3. Among spring wheats, Pinb-2v2 and Pinb-2v3 frequencies were more variable (soft white 25.0:75.0, hard red 58.2:41.8 and hard white 40.0:60.0, respectively). Kernel texture variation was analyzed using 247 of the 388 wheat varieties grown in multi-location factorial trials in up to 7 crop years. The range of variety means among the four groups, soft winter, soft spring, hard winter and hard spring, was on the order of 15-25 single kernel characterization system (SKCS) Hardness Index. The least significant difference for each of these trials ranged from 2. 8 to 5.6 SKCS Hardness Index. Observations lead to the conclusion that Pinb-2 variants do not exert a prominent effect on kernel texture, however, Pinb-2 variants do identify features of wheat germ plasm structure in the U. S. Pacific Northwest. © 2012 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA). Source

Zhang Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang Y.,Hebei Academy of Agricultural and Forestry science | Miao X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xia X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics

Key message: After cloning and mapping of wheat TaSdr genes, both the functional markers for TaSdr - B1 and TaVp - 1B were validated, and the distribution of allelic variations at TaSdr - B1 locus in the wheat cultivars from 19 countries was characterized. Seed dormancy is a major factor associated with pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat TaSdr genes, orthologs of OsSdr4 conferring seed dormancy in rice, were cloned by a comparative genomics approach. They were located on homoeologous group 2 chromosomes, and designated as TaSdr-A1, TaSdr-B1 and TaSdr-D1, respectively. Sequence analysis of TaSdr-B1 revealed a SNP at the position -11 upstream of the initiation codon, with bases A and G in cultivars with low and high germination indices (GI), respectively. A cleaved amplified polymorphism sequence marker Sdr2B was developed based on the SNP, and subsequently functional analysis of TaSdr-B1 was conducted by association and linkage mapping. A QTL for GI co-segregating with Sdr2B explained 6.4, 7.8 and 8.7 % of the phenotypic variances in a RIL population derived from Yangxiaomai/Zhongyou 9507 grown in Shijiazhuang, Beijing and the averaged data from those environments, respectively. Two sets of Chinese wheat cultivars were used for association mapping, and results indicated that TaSdr-B1 was significantly associated with GI. Analysis of the allelic distribution at the TaSdr-B1 locus showed that the frequencies of TaSdr-B1a associated with a lower GI were high in cultivars from Japan, Australia, Argentina, and the Middle and Lower Yangtze Valley Winter Wheat Region and Southwest Winter Wheat Region in China. This study provides not only a reliable functional marker for molecular-assisted selection of PHS in wheat breeding programs, but also gives novel information for a comprehensive understanding of seed dormancy. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Rasheed A.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Rasheed A.,Quaid-i-Azam University | Xia X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ogbonnaya F.,Grain Research and Development Corporation GRDC | And 5 more authors.
BMC Plant Biology

Background: Grain size and shape greatly influence grain weight which ultimately enhances grain yield in wheat. Digital imaging (DI) based phenomic characterization can capture the three dimensional variation in grain size and shape than has hitherto been possible. In this study, we report the results from using digital imaging of grain size and shape to understand the relationship among different components of this trait, their contribution to enhance grain weight, and to identify genomic regions (QTLs) controlling grain morphology using genome wide association mapping with high density diversity array technology (DArT) and allele-specific markers.Results: Significant positive correlations were observed between grain weight and grain size measurements such as grain length (r = 0.43), width, thickness (r = 0.64) and factor from density (FFD) (r = 0.69). A total of 231 synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHWs) were grouped into five different sub-clusters by Bayesian structure analysis using unlinked DArT markers. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay was observed among DArT loci > 10 cM distance and approximately 28% marker pairs were in significant LD. In total, 197 loci over 60 chromosomal regions and 79 loci over 31 chromosomal regions were associated with grain morphology by genome wide analysis using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) approaches, respectively. They were mainly distributed on homoeologous group 2, 3, 6 and 7 chromosomes. Twenty eight marker-trait associations (MTAs) on the D genome chromosomes 2D, 3D and 6D may carry novel alleles with potential to enhance grain weight due to the use of untapped wild accessions of Aegilops tauschii. Statistical simulations showed that favorable alleles for thousand kernel weight (TKW), grain length, width and thickness have additive genetic effects. Allelic variations for known genes controlling grain size and weight, viz. TaCwi-2A, TaSus-2B, TaCKX6-3D and TaGw2-6A, were also associated with TKW, grain width and thickness. In silico functional analysis predicted a range of biological functions for 32 DArT loci and receptor like kinase, known to affect plant development, appeared to be common protein family encoded by several loci responsible for grain size and shape.Conclusion: Conclusively, we demonstrated the application and integration of multiple approaches including high throughput phenotyping using DI, genome wide association studies (GWAS) and in silico functional analysis of candidate loci to analyze target traits, and identify candidate genomic regions underlying these traits. These approaches provided great opportunity to understand the breeding value of SHWs for improving grain weight and enhanced our deep understanding on molecular genetics of grain weight in wheat. © 2014 Rasheed et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Wang L.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li G.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pena R.J.,International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center | Xia X.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science

Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play a key role in determining the processing quality of the end-use products of common wheat. The objectives of this study were to identify genes at Glu-A3 locus, develop the STS markers, and establish multiplex PCR with the STS markers for Glu-A3 alleles. Gene-specific PCR primers were designed to amplify six near-isogenic lines (NILs) and Glenlea with different Glu-A3 alleles (a, b, c, d, e, f and g) defined by the protein electrophoretic mobility. Three Glu-A3 genes with complete coding sequence were cloned, designated as GluA3-1, GluA3-2 and GluA3-3, respectively. Seven dominant allele-specific STS (sequence tagged sites) markers were designed based on the SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) among different allelic variants for the discrimination of the Glu-A3 protein alleles a, b, c, d, e, f and g. Four multiplex PCRs were established including Glu-A3b + Glu-A3f, Glu-A3d + Glu-A3f, Glu-A3d + Glu-A3g, and Glu-A3b + Glu-A3e. These markers and multiplex-PCR systems were validated on 141 CIMMYT wheat varieties and advanced lines with different Glu-A3 alleles, confirming that they can be efficiently used in marker-assisted breeding. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Xiao Y.G.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xiao Y.G.,Northwest University, China | Qian Z.G.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu K.,Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Crop Science

Knowledge on the changes in yield potential and associated physiological traits is essential for understanding the main yield-limiting factors and guiding future breeding strategies. Our objective was to identify physiological traits associated with genetic gains in grain yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Shandong province, China. Thirteen milestone cultivars and two advanced lines released from 1969 to 2006 were examined over 3 yr at Tai'an during 2006 to 2009. The genetic gain in grain yield was 62 kg ha-1 yr-1, largely associated with increased kernels per square meter, biomass, and harvest index (HI) and reduced plant height. Significant genetic changes were also observed especially for apparent leaf area index (LAI) at heading and anthesis, chlorophyll content (Chl) at anthesis, photosynthesis rate during grain filling, and stem water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) content at anthesis. Comparing genotypes having Rht-D1b and others with both Rht-D1b and Rht8c (Rht-D1b+Rht8c) showed increased grain yield, thousand kernel weight, kernels per spike, kernel weight per spike, HI, canopy temperature depression, and Chl at anthesis and LAI at heading with the latter but no difference in height. The results suggested that genetic gains in grain yield in Shandong province were mainly contributed by increases in kernels per square meter and biomass, which were achieved through improving crop photosynthesis at and after heading, and the source for grain filling may have benefited from increased WSC in stems at anthesis. © Crop Science Society of America. Source

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