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Neves D.,University of Algarve | Caetano P.,ILRI International Livestock Research Institute | Oliveira J.,University College Cork | Maia C.,University of Algarve | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

Phlomis purpurea (Lamiaceae), found in Quercus suber and Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia forest habitats in southern Portugal, is a non-host for the oomycete Phytophthora cinnamomi, the main biotic factor involved in cork oak and holm oak decline in the Iberian Peninsula. The effect of P. purpurea crude ethanol root extract was evaluated in vitro on P. cinnamomi mycelial growth, sporangial production, zoospore release and germination as well as on chlamydospore production and viability. The protection of cork oak against infection by the pathogen was also evaluated in planta. At 10 mg ml-1, in vitro inhibition of the pathogen structures was 85-100 %. In addition, P. purpurea plants were shown to protect Q. suber and Q. ilex from P. cinnamomi infection and to reduce the inoculum potential in glasshouse trials, indicating the ability to reduce root infection by the pathogen. The results suggest that P. purpurea has the potential to reduce disease spread and that their root extracts could provide candidate substances for control of the important pathogen, P. cinnamomi. © 2013 KNPV.


Fragaszy E.,University College London | Fragaszy E.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Ishola D.A.,University College London | Ishola D.A.,Public Health England | And 10 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2016

Background: Pigs are mixing vessels for influenza viral reassortment, but the extent of influenza transmission between swine and humans is not well understood. Objectives: To assess whether occupational exposure to pigs is a risk factor for human infection with human and swine-adapted influenza viruses. Methods: UK pig industry workers were frequency-matched on age, region, sampling month, and gender with a community-based comparison group from the Flu Watch study. HI assays quantified antibodies for swine and human A(H1) and A(H3) influenza viruses (titres ≥ 40 considered seropositive and indicative of infection). Virus-specific associations between seropositivity and occupational pig exposure were examined using multivariable regression models adjusted for vaccination. Pigs on the same farms were also tested for seropositivity. Results: Forty-two percent of pigs were seropositive to A(H1N1)pdm09. Pig industry workers showed evidence of increased odds of A(H1N1)pdm09 seropositivity compared to the comparison group, albeit with wide confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted odds ratio after accounting for possible cross-reactivity with other swine A(H1) viruses (aOR) 25·3, 95% CI (1·4–536·3), P = 0·028. Conclusion: The results indicate that A(H1N1)pdm09 virus was common in UK pigs during the pandemic and subsequent period of human A(H1N1)pdm09 circulation, and occupational exposure to pigs was a risk factor for human infection. Influenza immunisation of pig industry workers may reduce transmission and the potential for virus reassortment. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Asres A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Solkner J.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Puskur R.,ILRI International Livestock Research Institute | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
Livestock Research for Rural Development | Year: 2012

This paper uses household and key informant survey data from Ethiopia to: (1) understand the organizational structures that influence change in dairy production systems; (2) explore how local-level innovation system networks are functioning in the smallholder dairy production and (3) identify intervention points for strengthening innovation capacity. Results revealed that public sector actors are the major role players in the dairy production system despite their minor role in marketing linkages. We also found out that the private sector actors play peripheral roles in the network. Differences between innovator and non-innovator social networks were observed, with innovators exhibiting greater access to sources of production knowledge, inputs, credits and markets. Important institutions that could strengthen the stakeholders' ability to identify, implement and adapt sustainable practices were not included in the processes. We recommend for policy guidance to reform the current agricultural extension system to address institutional and policy issues that constrain effective agricultural innovation system.


Wuletaw Z.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Wuletaw Z.,ILRI International Livestock Research Institute | Wurzinger M.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Wurzinger M.,ILRI International Livestock Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2011

High altitude pulmonary hypertension is common in cattle at high altitude areas. The extent of proneness, epidemiology, and genetics of the disease is not, however, known in Ethiopia where a large proportion of the area is at altitudes above 2700m. To learn about adaptive characteristics of cattle towards altitude, a study of physiological adaptation, measured via pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) score from 218, hematological parameters from 672, and arterial oxygen saturation predicted by pulse oximeter from 241 animals was conducted in North Western Ethiopia. Local breeds and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey were investigated. Results showed that all PAP scores (21 to 47mm Hg) fall under low to moderate risks. No sign of pulmonary hypertension was observed among all the cattle genotypes. Crosses of the local cattle with Holstein Friesian and Jersey were not more prone to the disease than local cattle. A statistically significant (P<0.05) decrease in the percent arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (% SaO2) to approximately 82% was present in the high altitude animals. Crosses and locals at high altitude, ≥2700m, did not exhibit significant differences (P>0.05) in % SaO2. We report a new clinically relevant range of oxygen saturation, ≥68%, for the high altitude cattle which is far below the threshold value usually assumed for temperate cattle, >80%. Hematological values of the studied genotypes lie within normal ranges set for temperate breeds despite suffering from heavy parasitic infestation. The significantly greater (P<0.001) red blood cell counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values of Simien cattle measured at 3500m compared to the other genotypes in this study were not different when compared to other breeds studied elsewhere at lower altitudes and around sea level. Simien cattle probably have unique adaptations of oxygen uptake and delivery that result in the absence of hypoxemic stimulus to increase red blood cell production and hemoglobin concentration. We concluded that indigenous cattle of the Simien Plateau of Ethiopia are adapted genetically to high altitude by largely eliminating the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictor response. The good adaptation is most likely due to natural selection. Understanding this adaptation model requires investigation of the biological mechanisms and the underlying genetics. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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