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Smith G.,Essential Micronutrients Foundation | Smith G.,International Life science Institute ILSI
Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology

More than 2 billion individuals globally suffer some degree of deficiency of one or more micronutrients, with the largest numbers in Africa and Asia. Fortification of foods with vitamins and minerals is a proven public health intervention. In Asia, salt iodization, fortified flour and condiments such as fish sauce and soy sauce are reaching hundreds of millions. However, many individuals still do not have adequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, and better fortification strategies and practices will help to alleviate these deficiencies. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has supported research and scientific dialog about technical and health issues related to micronutrients. Recent studies have indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency among children in SE Asia, and in India. A new trial shows the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk in addressing deficiencies, which may have applicability in school feeding programs in India and other parts of Asia. Infant nutrition is also critical, and complementary foods can play an important role after exclusive breastfeeding in providing critical nutrients. A formulation developed in China, Ying Yang Bao, has shown significant reduction of anemia and improved growth in infants. Fortification in Asia has the potential to greatly reduce micronutrient deficiencies and improve health, but more structured efforts are needed to achieve these goals. © 2015, Center for Academic Publications Japan. All rights reserved. Source

Kovalskys I.,International Life science Institute ILSI | Rausch Herscovici C.,University of Salvador | De Gregorio M.J.,University of Buenos Aires
Journal of Public Health

Background Childhood overweight has been reported in developing countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended a standardized classification system in order to facilitate comparison across countries and studies. This study aims to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity and thinness in a group of 10-11-year-old children using three references [the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000, the the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2000 and the WHO, 2007]. MethodsA representative sample of 1588 children (771 boys and 817 girls) resulted from the randomization of 80 public schools from Buenos Aires. ResultsThe prevalence of overweight, including obesity, for the whole sample was 35.5, 27.9 and 27.9, respectively, depending on the reference used. For overweight, no gender differences were observed regardless of the reference used. Obesity was significantly more frequent among boys, and this remained consistent for the three references. Thinness frequency was 1.6 and 2.5 for the boys and 2.7 and 4.5 for the girls when considering the WHO and CDC cut-off points, respectively, and frequency increased in both boys and girls for each age group. ConclusionThere is a high prevalence of overweight and obese cases among school-aged children of Buenos Aires regardless of the reference used. Epidemiological data provided by this study suggests the urgent need to design preventive interventions. © The Author 2010, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. Source

Holden M.J.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Levine M.,International Life science Institute ILSI | Scholdberg T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Haynes R.J.,U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology | Jenkins G.R.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

An online survey was conducted by the International Life Sciences Institute, Food Biotechnology Committee, on the use of qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tnos DNA sequence elements for the detection of genetically engineered (GE) crop plant material. Forty-four testing laboratories around the world completed the survey. The results showed the widespread use of such methods, the multiplicity of published and in-house methods, and the variety of reference materials and calibrants in use. There was an interest on the part of respondents in validated quantitative assays relevant to all GE events that contain these two genetic elements. Data are presented by testing two variations each of five published real-time quantitative PCR methods for 35S detection on eight maize reference materials. The results showed that two of the five methods were not suitable for all the eight reference materials, with poor linear regression parameters and multiple PCR amplification products for some of the reference materials. This study demonstrates that not all 35S methods produce satisfactory results, emphasizing the need for method validation. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Khadgawat R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Marwaha R.K.,International Life science Institute ILSI | Garg M.K.,Army Hospital Research and Referral | Ramot R.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Osteoporosis International

Vitamin D deficiency is a major public health problem, needing immediate attention. We studied the effect of vitamin D fortification of milk in school children. Our results show that fortification of milk is safe and effective strategy to deal with widespread vitamin D deficiency. Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency among school children and adolescents is a well-documented major public health problem, needing immediate attention. To assess the effect of vitamin D fortified milk on serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D [S.25(OH)D] levels, we carried out a prospective double-blind randomized control trial in apparently healthy school children, aged 10-14 years. Methods: Of 776 subjects recruited out of 796 who consented, 713 (boys-300; girls-413) completed the study. Subjects were randomized into three groups. Group A (n = 237) received 200 ml of unfortified milk per day while group B (n = 243) and group C (n = 233) received 200 ml of milk fortified with 600 IU (15 μg) and 1,000 IU (25 μg) of vitamin D per day for 12 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, S.25(OH)D, and urinary calcium/creatinine ratio were estimated at baseline and after supplementation. Results: Hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] was observed in 92.3 % subjects with mean S.25(OH)D level of 11.69 ± 5.36 ng/ml. There was no significant difference in S.25(OH)D levels among the three groups at baseline. The mean percentage change in S.25(OH)D level in groups B (137.97 %) and C (177.29 %.) were significantly greater than group A (-5.25 %). The percentage of subjects having S.25(OH)D levels >20 ng/ml following supplementation were 5.9 % in group A, 69.95 % in group B, and 81.11 % in group C in comparison to 6.32 %, 4.9 % and 12 %, respectively, at baseline. Conclusion: Fortification of milk with vitamin D is an effective and safe strategy in improving S.25(OH)D levels in children aged 10-14 years. © 2013 International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation. Source

Alba R.,Monsanto Corporation | Phillips A.,Dow AgroSciences | Mackie S.,Bayer CropScience | Gillikin N.,BASF | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Food Composition and Analysis

In May 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) released Version 1.0 of the Crop Composition Database (http://www.cropcomposition.org), a comprehensive public database that provides information on the natural variability in composition of conventionally bred crops. Currently, the database contains more than 115,000 data points representing 132 compositional components in corn, soybean and cotton. In 2009 the database logged more than 30,000 site visits from 122 countries around the world. ILSI has made a number of improvements to the original database and recently developed Version 4.0, which will be released for public access in 2010. Version 4.0 presents an intuitive graphical-user interface (GUI), significantly increased performance, added security, and additional features such as unit conversion and multiple output options. Another notable improvement in Version 4.0 is the Summary of Search Results tool, which allows users to immediately view data of interest and guides the preparation of output reports. This paper summarizes some of the enhanced features and usage of the database, which continues to be a valuable tool for characterizing the composition of conventional crops. © 2010 International Life Sciences Institute. Source

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