International Lead Association ILA

Durham, NC, United States

International Lead Association ILA

Durham, NC, United States
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Alsop D.,McMaster University | Ng T.Y.-T.,McMaster University | Chowdhury M.J.,International Lead Association ILA | Wood C.M.,McMaster University | Wood C.M.,University of British Columbia
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2016

In Pb-contaminated environments, simultaneous exposure to both waterborne and dietborne Pb is likely to occur. This study examined the potential interactive effects of these two pathways in juvenile rainbow trout that were exposed to Pb in the water alone, in the diet alone, and in combination for 7 weeks. The highest waterborne Pb concentration tested (110 μg L−1) was approximately equivalent to the 7-week LC20 (97 μg L−1) measured in a separate trial, while the lowest was a concentration often measured in contaminated environments (8.5 μg L−1). The live diet (10% daily ration on a wet mass basis) consisted of oligochaete worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) pre-exposed for 28 days to the same waterborne Pb concentration, and the highest dietary dosing rate to the trout was 12.6 μg Pb g fish−1 day−1. With waterborne exposure, whole body Pb burden increased to a greater extent in the worms than in the fish. Nonetheless, in trout waterborne exposure still resulted in 20–60-fold greater Pb accumulation compared to dietborne Pb exposure. However, combined exposure to both waterborne and dietborne Pb reduced the whole body accumulation extensively at waterborne Pb > 50 μg L−1, with similar antagonistic interaction in liver and carcass (but not gill or gut) at a lower threshold of 20 μg L−1. Growth effects in trout were minimal with marginal reductions in the dietborne and combined exposures seen only at 110 μg L−1. Chronic Pb exposure reduced lipid and carbohydrates level in the worms by 50% and 80% respectively, while protein was unchanged, so growth effects in trout may have been of indirect origin. After 7 weeks, Ca2+ homeostasis in the trout was unaffected, but there were impacts on Na+. Blood Na+ was reduced in waterborne and dietborne exposures, while gut Na+/K+ ATPase activities were reduced in waterborne and combined exposures. This study is the first, to our knowledge to examine the interaction of waterborne and dietborne Pb exposure in fish. While physiological impacts of Pb were observed in both worms and fish, higher concentrations of dietborne Pb actually protected fish from waterborne Pb bioaccumulation and these effects. The impacts of metals on diet quality should not be neglected in future dietborne toxicity studies using live prey. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, McMaster University and International Lead Association ILA
Type: | Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2016

In Pb-contaminated environments, simultaneous exposure to both waterborne and dietborne Pb is likely to occur. This study examined the potential interactive effects of these two pathways in juvenile rainbow trout that were exposed to Pb in the water alone, in the diet alone, and in combination for 7 weeks. The highest waterborne Pb concentration tested (110gL(-1)) was approximately equivalent to the 7-week LC20 (97gL(-1)) measured in a separate trial, while the lowest was a concentration often measured in contaminated environments (8.5gL(-1)). The live diet (10% daily ration on a wet mass basis) consisted of oligochaete worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) pre-exposed for 28days to the same waterborne Pb concentration, and the highest dietary dosing rate to the trout was 12.6g Pb g fish(-1)day(-1). With waterborne exposure, whole body Pb burden increased to a greater extent in the worms than in the fish. Nonetheless, in trout waterborne exposure still resulted in 20-60-fold greater Pb accumulation compared to dietborne Pb exposure. However, combined exposure to both waterborne and dietborne Pb reduced the whole body accumulation extensively at waterborne Pb>50gL(-1), with similar antagonistic interaction in liver and carcass (but not gill or gut) at a lower threshold of 20gL(-1). Growth effects in trout were minimal with marginal reductions in the dietborne and combined exposures seen only at 110gL(-1). Chronic Pb exposure reduced lipid and carbohydrates level in the worms by 50% and 80% respectively, while protein was unchanged, so growth effects in trout may have been of indirect origin. After 7 weeks, Ca(2+) homeostasis in the trout was unaffected, but there were impacts on Na(+). Blood Na(+) was reduced in waterborne and dietborne exposures, while gut Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activities were reduced in waterborne and combined exposures. This study is the first, to our knowledge to examine the interaction of waterborne and dietborne Pb exposure in fish. While physiological impacts of Pb were observed in both worms and fish, higher concentrations of dietborne Pb actually protected fish from waterborne Pb bioaccumulation and these effects. The impacts of metals on diet quality should not be neglected in future dietborne toxicity studies using live prey.

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