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Genève, Switzerland

Hou D.,University of Cambridge | Al-Tabbaa A.,University of Cambridge | Chen H.,University of Missouri | Mamic I.,University of Cambridge | Mamic I.,International Labour Organization
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Contaminated land remediation has traditionally been viewed as sustainable practice because it reduces urban sprawl and mitigates risks to human being and the environment. However, in an emerging green and sustainable remediation (GSR) movement, remediation practitioners have increasingly recognized that remediation operations have their own environmental footprint. The GSR calls for sustainable behaviour in the remediation industry, for which a series of white papers and guidance documents have been published by various government agencies and professional organizations. However, the relationship between the adoption of such sustainable behaviour and its underlying driving forces has not been studied. This study aims to contribute to sustainability science by rendering a better understanding of what drives organizational behaviour in adopting sustainable practices. Factor analysis (FA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) were used to investigate the relationship between sustainable practices and key factors driving these behaviour changes in the remediation field. A conceptual model on sustainability in the environmental remediation industry was developed on the basis of stakeholder and institutional theories. The FA classified sustainability considerations, institutional promoting and impeding forces, and stakeholder's influence. Subsequently the SEM showed that institutional promoting forces had significant positive effects on adopting sustainability measures, and institutional impeding forces had significant negative effects. Stakeholder influences were found to have only marginal direct effect on the adoption of sustainability; however, they exert significant influence on institutional promoting forces, thus rendering high total effect (i.e. direct effect plus indirect effect) on the adoption of sustainability. This study suggests that sustainable remediation represents an advanced sustainable practice, which may only be fully endorsed by both internal and external stakeholders after its regulatory, normative and cognitive components are institutionalized. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Park J.-K.,University of Massachusetts Lowell | Park J.-K.,Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency | Park J.-K.,International Labour Organization | Buchholz B.,University of Massachusetts Lowell
Ergonomics | Year: 2013

In order to examine the effects of work surface height (WSH) on muscle activity, posture and discomfort during simulated pipetting, an experimental study was conducted using electromyography, electrogoniometry, video techniques and also qualitative data. The experimental design consisted of one independent variable (WSH with six heights) and 13 dependent variables. The levels of muscle strain and discomfort were significantly lower at the shoulder when the WSHs were low but thumb muscle activities and neck flexion levels were markedly higher at these WSHs compared to higher WSHs. To reduce shoulder strain, without raising thumb and neck strain beyond acceptable limits, the findings suggest that the height of a laboratory workbench should be at the level of the pipette tip when held in a standing position with the hand at elbow height. It was also found that pipetting should not be done in a seated posture. Practitioner Summary: An experimental study was conducted to examine the effects of work surface height on upper extremity muscle activity, posture and discomfort during simulated pipetting. The findings suggest that the laboratory workbench height should be at the pipette-tip level when held in a standing position with the hand at elbow height. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Jackson L.A.,World Trade Organization | Jansen M.,International Labour Organization
Food Policy | Year: 2010

Two institutions provide multilateral venues for countries to discuss food safety measures at the international level: the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization. Both institutions encourage their Members to base food safety standards on scientific evidence.In this paper we provide a description of how food-safety-related scientific evidence is generated and how it is used in the context of risk assessment for international standard-setting at Codex and in WTO trade disputes. In particular, we discuss the processes leading to policy conclusions on the basis of scientific evidence, with a focus on the interactions involved between private and public sector actors and those between "scientific experts" and others.We identify weaknesses in the current institutional set-up and provide suggestions on how to improve the interaction between different players at the national and international level so as to strengthen the existing system and increase its cost efficiency. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Willms D.G.,Salama SHIELD Foundation | Arratia M.-I.,McMaster University | Makondesa P.,International Labour Organization
Sexually Transmitted Infections | Year: 2011

Objectives: The aim of this intervention research study was to engage senior leaders of faith-based organisations (FBOs) in Malawi in a participatory process to construct an interfaith theology of HIV/AIDS. This process was designed to enhance the capacity of faith leaders to respond more effectively to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Methods: An evidence-driven combination of ethnographic and participatory action research methodologies was utilised. Conceptual events - innovative participatory action research processes - were held over the 4-year project and brought together health service providers, policy makers and a non-governmental organisation in partnership with FBOs and grassroots faith-based communities. Results: Through facilitated dialogue, an interfaith theology of HIV/AIDS emerged, resulting in the proposition that a 'spiritualised condom' endorses a 'theology of protecting life'. This proposition was based on the following convictions: (1) life is sacred and to be protected, (2) to kill or murder is a 'greater sin' than the 'lesser sin of infidelity', (3) protection of the innocent is a moral and religious requirement, (4) condoms have the potential to prevent the death of an innocent person and (5) condoms need to be encouraged, even in the context of marriage. Conclusions: Clinicians, non-governmental organisations, health service providers and policy makers, assisted by health social scientists, can successfully partner with FBOs and their leaders to (1) modify and transform faith-based understandings of HIV risk and (2) bring about attitudinal and behaviour changes that help to address the challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. Source

Scheil-Adlung X.,International Labour Organization
Health Promotion International | Year: 2014

Health inequities are determined by multiple factors within the health sector and beyond. While gaps in social health protection coverage and effective access to health care are among the most prominent causes of health inequities, social and economic inequalities existing beyond the health sector contribute greatly to barriers to access affordable and acceptable health care. © 2014 The Author. Source

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