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Coe F.L.,University of Chicago | Evan A.P.,Indiana University | Worcester E.M.,University of Chicago | Lingeman J.E.,International Kidney Stone Institute
Urological Research | Year: 2010

No single theory of pathogenesis can properly account for human kidney stones, they are too various and their formation is too complex for simple understanding. Using human tissue biopsies, intraoperative imaging and such physiology data from ten different stone forming groups, we have identified at least three pathways that lead to stones. The first pathway is overgrowth on interstitial apatite plaque as seen in idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers, as well as stone formers with primary hyperparathyroidism, ileostomy, and small bowel resection, and in brushite stone formers. In the second pathway, there are crystal deposits in renal tubules that were seen in all stone forming groups except the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers. The third pathway is free solution crystallization. Clear examples of this pathway are those patient groups with cystinuria or hyperoxaluria associated with bypass surgery for obesity. Although the final products may be very similar, the ways of creation are so different that in attempting to create animal and cell models of the processes one needs to be careful that the details of the human condition are included. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Evan A.P.,Indiana University | Evan A.P.,International Kidney Stone Institute | Coe F.L.,University of Chicago | Connors B.A.,Indiana University | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology | Year: 2015

Human stone calcium phosphate (CaP) content correlates with higher urine CaP supersaturation (SS) and urine pH as well as with the number of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) treatments. SWL does damage medullary collecting ducts and vasa recta, sites for urine pH regulation. We tested the hypothesis that SWL raises urine pH and therefore Cap SS, resulting in CaP nucleation and tubular plugging. The left kidney (T) of nine farm pigs was treated with SWL, and metabolic studies were performed using bilateral ureteral catheters for up to 70 days post-SWL. Some animals were given an NH4Cl load to sort out effects on urine pH of CD injury vs. increased HCO-3 delivery. Histopathological studies were performed at the end of the functional studies. The mean pH of the T kidneys exceeded that of the control (C) kidneys by 0.18 units in 14 experiments on 9 pigs. Increased HCO-3 delivery to CD is at least partly responsible for the pH difference because NH4Cl acidosis abolished it. The T kidneys excreted more Na, K, HCO-3, water, Ca, Mg, and Cl than C kidneys. A single nephron site that could produce losses of all of these is the thick ascending limb. Extensive injury was noted in medullary thick ascending limbs and collecting ducts. Linear bands showing nephron loss and fibrosis were found in the cortex and extended into the medulla. Thus SWL produces tubule cell injury easily observed histopathologically that leads to functional disturbances across a wide range of electrolyte metabolism including higher than control urine pH. © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

Evan A.P.,Indiana University | Evan A.P.,International Kidney Stone Institute | Lingeman J.E.,International Kidney Stone Institute | Worcester E.M.,University of Chicago | And 4 more authors.
Anatomical Record | Year: 2014

Our previous work has shown that stone formers who form calcium phosphate (CaP) stones that contain any brushite (BRSF) have a distinctive renal histopathology and surgical anatomy when compared with idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers (ICSF). Here we report on another group of idiopathic CaP stone formers, those forming stone containing primarily hydroxyapatite, in order to clarify in what ways their pathology differs from BRSF and ICSF. Eleven hydroxyapatite stone formers (HASF) (2 males, 9 females) were studied using intra-operative digital photography and biopsy of papillary and cortical regions to measure tissue changes associated with stone formation. Our main finding is that HASF and BRSF differ significantly from each other and that both differ greatly from ICSF. Both BRSF and ICSF patients have significant levels of Randall's plaque compared with HASF. Intra-tubular deposit number is greater in HASF than BRSF and nonexistent in ICSF while deposit size is smaller in HASF than BRSF. Cortical pathology is distinctly greater in BRSF than HASF. Four attached stones were observed in HASF, three in 25 BRSF and 5-10 per ICSF patient. HASF and BRSF differ clinically in that both have higher average urine pH, supersaturation of CaP, and calcium excretion than ICSF. Our work suggests that HASF and BRSF are two distinct and separate diseases and both differ greatly from ICSF. Anat Rec, 297:731-748, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Evan A.P.,Indiana University | Worcester E.M.,University of Chicago | Williams J.C.,Indiana University | Sommer A.J.,Miami University Ohio | And 3 more authors.
Anatomical Record | Year: 2015

Medullary sponge kidney (MSK) is associated with recurrent stone formation, but the clinical phenotype is unclear because patients with other disorders may be incorrectly labeled MSK. We studied 12 patients with histologic findings pathognomonic of MSK. All patients had an endoscopically recognizable pattern of papillary malformation, which may be segmental or diffuse. Affected papillae are enlarged and billowy, due to markedly enlarged inner medullary collecting ducts (IMCD), which contain small, mobile ductal stones. Patients had frequent dilation of Bellini ducts, with occasional mineral plugs. Stones may form over white (Randall's) plaque, but most renal pelvic stones are not attached, and have a similar morphology as ductal stones, which are a mixture of calcium oxalate and apatite. Patients had no abnormalities of urinary acidification or acid excretion; the most frequent metabolic abnormality was idiopathic hypercalciuria. Although both Runx2 and Osterix are expressed in papillae of MSK patients, no mineral deposition was seen at the sites of gene expression, arguing against a role of these genes in this process. Similar studies in idiopathic calcium stone formers showed no expression of these genes at sites of Randall's plaque. The most likely mechanism for stone formation in MSK appears to be crystallization due to urinary stasis in dilated IMCD with subsequent passage of ductal stones into the renal pelvis where they may serve as nuclei for stone formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Evan A.P.,Indiana University | Worcester E.M.,University of Chicago | Coe F.L.,University of Chicago | Williams J.,Indiana University | Lingeman J.E.,International Kidney Stone Institute
Urolithiasis | Year: 2014

The precise mechanisms of kidney stone formation and growth are not completely known, even though human stone disease appears to be one of the oldest diseases known to medicine. With the advent of the new digital endoscope and detailed renal physiological studies performed on well phenotyped stone formers, substantial advances have been made in our knowledge of the pathogenesis of the most common type of stone former, the idiopathic calcium oxalate stone former as well as nine other stone forming groups. The observations from our group on human stone formers and those of others on model systems have suggested four entirely different pathways for kidney stone formation. Calcium oxalate stone growth over sites of Randall’s plaque appear to be the primary mode of stone formation for those patients with hypercalciuria. Overgrowths off the ends of Bellini duct plugs have been noted in most stone phenotypes, do they result in a clinical stone? Micro-lith formation does occur within the lumens of dilated inner medullary collecting ducts of cystinuric stone formers and appear to be confined to this space. Lastly, cystinuric stone formers also have numerous small, oval, smooth yellow appearing calyceal stones suggestive of formation in free solution. The scientific basis for each of these four modes of stone formation are reviewed and used to explore novel research opportunities. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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