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White B.,International Institute of Social Studies
Journal of Agrarian Change | Year: 2012

This paper explores changes in rural Javanese childhoods over three generations. A combination of historical ethnography and comparison of children's time-budgets, based on three periods of field research, allows us to trace how the experience of childhood has changed in the Javanese village of Kali Loro, from the 1930s to the early twenty-first century. We pay particular attention to the ongoing process of prolongation of childhood and adolescence through changes in education, marriage, children's work and young lifestyles. For the grandparents and parents of today's children, working, and earning money, outside school hours was a part of normal life for both boys and girls. While children's need for money has grown with changing lifestyles in the intervening decades, work outside the home, and particularly work that earns money, is no longer a significant part of childrens' experience. This puts today's children in a condition of greater dependence on parents, elder siblings or other relatives for access to cash, bringing new tensions into intergenerational relations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

White B.,University of Amsterdam | Dasgupta A.,International Institute of Social Studies
Journal of Peasant Studies | Year: 2010

This article considers the global expansion of agrofuels feedstock production from a political economy perspective. It considers and dismisses the environmental and pro-poor developmental justifications attached to agrofuels. To local populations and direct producers, the specific destination of the crop as fuel, food, cosmetics or other final uses in faraway places is probably of less interest than the forms of (direct or indirect) appropriation of their land and the forms of their insertion or exclusion as producers in global commodity chains. Global demand for both agrofuels and food is stimulating new forms (or the resurgence of old forms) of corporate land grabbing and expropriation, and of incorporation of smallholders in contracted production. Drawing both on recent studies on agrofuels expansion and on the political economy literature on agrarian transition and capitalism in agriculture, this article raises the question whether 'agrofuels capitalism' is in any way essentially different from other forms of capitalist agrarian monocrop production, and in turn whether the agrarian transitions involved require new tools of analysis. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Margulis M.E.,University of Northern British Columbia | Margulis M.E.,Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies | McKeon N.,Third University of Rome | Borras Jr. S.M.,International Institute of Social Studies
Globalizations | Year: 2013

Land grabbing has emerged as a significant issue in contemporary global governance that cuts across the fields of development, investment, food security, among others. Whereas land grabbing per se is not a new phenomenon, having historical precedents in the era of imperialism, the character, scale, pace, orientation, and key drivers of the recent wave of land grabs is a distinct historical phenomenon closely tied to major shifts in power and production in the global political economy. Land grabbing is facilitated by ever greater flows of capital, goods, and ideas across borders, and these flows occur through axes of power that are far more polycentric than the North-South imperialist tradition. In this introduction we argue that land grabbing speaks to many of the core questions of globalization studies. However, we note scholars of globalization have yet to deeply engage with this new field. We situate land grabbing in an era of advanced capitalism, multiple global crises, and the role of new configurations of power and resistance in global governance institutions. The essays in this collection contribute to identifying land grabbing as an important and urgent topic for theoretical and empirical investigations to deepen our understanding of contemporary globalization and governance. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Opschoor H.,VU University Amsterdam | Opschoor H.,International Institute of Social Studies | Tang L.,Chinese Institute of Urban Environment
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology | Year: 2011

Economic and population growth increasingly threaten the sustainable development of world heritage sites. Given the lack of emphasis on the notion of sustainable development for cultural (and, to a lesser extent, natural) diversity in planning development in and around such sites, the notions of sustainability and heritage need to be combined in a conceptual perspective. The need for such an integrated approach and possibilities for it are explored in this Special Issue, with a focus on Lijiang City (China), a famous tourist city with UNESCO world heritage status due to rich cultural and natural diversity. The city is experiencing rapid development, characterised by human population growth, natural/cultural attractions and socio-economic pressure. Tourism development in Lijiang City has resulted in urbanisation, which alters the existing landscapes and threatens the integrity of the world heritage. Tourism development as currently practiced is unfavourable to the health of the industry in the long term. This self-contradictory mechanism explains the major conflict between short-term destructive development and sustainable development in Lijiang City. By reviewing 15 studies, this Special Issue highlights the economic, tourism and ecological challenges in sustainable development of Lijiang City and its surrounding area, and suggests a variety of solutions, including green spaces, digital technology in heritage protection, climate-sensitive land resource planning, etc. This preliminary work will provide a useful focus for sustainable development studies and assessment of performance of Lijiang City to both researchers and administrators, and will contribute to sustainable development of world heritage areas in China and elsewhere. © 2011 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Borras Jr. S.M.,International Institute of Social Studies | Franco J.C.,Transnational Institute | Wang C.,China Agricultural University
Globalizations | Year: 2013

The emergence of 'flex crops and commodities' within a fluid international food regime transition, the rise of BRICS and middle-income countries, and the revalued role of nation-states are critical context for land grabbing. These global transformations that shape and are reshaped by contemporary land grabbing have resulted in the emergence of competing interpretations of the meaning of such changes, making the already complex governance terrain even more complicated. We are witnessing a three-way political contestation at the global level to control the character, pace, and trajectory of discourse, and the instruments in and practice of land governance. These are 'regulate to facilitate', 'regulate to mitigate negative impacts and maximize opportunities', and 'regulate to block and rollback' land grabbing. Future trajectories in land grabbing and its governance will be shaped partly by the balance of state and social forces within and between these three political tendencies. Given this an unfolding global development, this article offers a preliminary analysis by mapping under-explored areas of inquiry and puts forward initial ways of questioning, rather than firm arguments based on complete empirical material. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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