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Prasko J.,Palacky University | Prasko J.,International Institute of CBT | Vyskocilova J.,International Institute of CBT | Mozny P.,Mental Hospital Kromeriz | And 5 more authors.
Neuroendocrinology Letters | Year: 2011

HYPOTHESIS: For cognitive behavioural therapy, acquisition and maintenance of psychotherapeutic and supervisory competencies is crucial. METHODS: The PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the following keywords: cognitive-behavioural therapy, competencies, therapeutic relationship, intervention, technique, training, supervision, self-reflection, empirically supported, transference, countertransference, scheme of therapy, dialectical behaviour therapy. The search was performed by repeating the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. The articles were sorted and key articles listed in reference lists were searched. In addition, original texts by A.T. Beck, J. Beck, C. Padesky, M. Linehan, R. Leahy, J. Young, W. Kuyken and others were used. The resources were confronted with our own psychotherapeutic and supervisory experiences and only most relevant information was included in the text. Thus, the article is a review with conclusions concerned with competencies in cognitive behavioural therapy. RESULTS: For cognitive behavioural therapy, four domains of competencies in psychotherapy are crucial - relationship, case assessment and conceptualization, self-reflection and intervention. These may be divided into foundational, specific and supervisory. The foundational competencies include recognition of empirical basis for a clinical approach, good interpersonal skills, ability to establish and maintain the therapeutic relationship, self-reflection, sensitivity to a difference and ethical behaviour. The specific competencies involve the skill of case conceptualization in terms of maladaptive beliefs and patterns of behaviour, ability to think scientifically and teach this to the patient, structure therapy and sessions, assign and check homework, etc. The supervisors competencies include multiple responsibilities in supporting the supervisee, identification and processing of the therapist's problems with the patient, continuous development, increasing the supervisee's self-reflection, serving as an example and being as effective as possible in the role of a clinical instructor. CONCLUSION: Both the literature and our own experiences underline the importance of competencies in cognitive behavioural therapy and supervision. © 2011 Neuroendocrinology Letters.

Prasko J.,Palacky University | Prasko J.,International Institute of CBT | Mozny P.,Mental Hospital Kromeriz | Mozny P.,International Institute of CBT | And 4 more authors.
Biomedical Papers | Year: 2012

Objective. Supervision is a basic part of training and ongoing education in cognitive behavioural therapy. Self-reflection is an important part of supervision. The conscious understanding of one's own emotions, feelings, thoughts, and attitudes at the time of their occurrence, and the ability to continuously follow and recognize them are among the most important abilities of both therapists and supervisors. The objective of this article is to review aspects related to supervision in cognitive behavioural therapy and self-reflection in the literature. Methods. This is a narrative review. A literature review was performed using the PubMed, SciVerse Scopus, and Web of Science databases; additional references were found through bibliography reviews of relevant articles published prior to July 2011. The databases were searched for articles containing the following keywords: cognitive behavioural therapy, self-reflection, therapeutic relationship, training, supervision, transference, and countertransference. The review also includes information from monographs referred to by other reviews. Results. We discuss conceptual aspects related to supervision and the role of self-reflection. Self-reflection in therapy is a continuous process which is essential for the establishment of a therapeutic relationship, the professional growth of the therapist, and the ongoing development of therapeutic skills. Recognizing one's own emotions is a basic skill from which other skills necessary for both therapy and emotional self-control stem. Therapists who are skilled in understanding their inner emotions during their encounters with clients are better at making decisions, distinguishing their needs from their clients' needs, understanding transference and countertransference, and considering an optimal response at any time during a session. They know how to handle their feelings so that these correspond with the situation and their response is in the client's best interest. The ability to self-reflect increases the ability to perceive other people's inner emotions, kindles altruism, and increases attunement to subtle signals indicating what others need or want. Self-reflection may be practised by the therapists themselves using traditional cognitive behavioural therapy techniques, or it may be learned in the course of supervision. If therapists are unable to recognize their own thoughts and feelings, or the effects of their attitudes in a therapeutic situation, then they are helpless against these thoughts and feelings, which may control the therapist's behaviour to the disadvantage of the client and therapist alike. Conclusion. Training and supervision focused on self-reflection are beneficial to both supervisees and their clients. The more experienced the supervisor is, the more self-reflection used in therapy and supervision.

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