International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT

Padappai, India

International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT

Padappai, India
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Surekha P.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Kishore A.S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Srinivas A.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Selvam G.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | And 3 more authors.
Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology | Year: 2012

Context: In light of the increased use of zinc oxide nanoparticles in cosumer products such as sunscreens, there is a need for screening the potential dermal toxicity of these nanoparticles. Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the risk associated with the nano zinc oxide at realistic exposure levels through dermal route. This study is to understand the toxic potential of nano zinc oxide through repeated dermal exposure for a period of 28 days. Materials and methods: Six-to 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were applied with three different doses (75, 180, and 360mg/kg body weight) of nano zinc oxide (20nm) at 5 days/week basis for a period of 28 days. The dose levels were calculated taking into consideration the percentage of nanomaterial in the sunscreen, number of application times, and average weight of the consumer in order to assess the realistic risk related to it. Control group animals were applied with distilled water alone. The collagen content was estimated in skin and tail of all the treated and control animals. Results: The content was significantly decreased in all the nano zinc oxide-treated groups with an inverse dose relationship. Discussion and conclusion: The percentage collagen loss was high in skin when compared with tail. This may be due to the site of application where in the nano zinc oxide may be passed through skin due to their small size and may induce oxidative stress. Hence, we suggest that regulators and industry need to address the toxicity of nanomaterials with a realistic exposure assessment rather following conventional dose measurements following existing protocols. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Srinivas A.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology Iibat | Rao P.J.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology Iibat | Selvam G.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology Iibat | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology Iibat | Reddy P.N.,CSIR - Central Leather Research Institute
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2011

The aim of the present study was to assess the acute toxic potential of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) in rats when exposed through the head and nose inhalation route. The rats were exposed to CeO2 NPs and the resultant effects if any, to cause cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation in the lungs were evaluated on a 24h, 48h and 14 day post exposure period. Our results showed a significant decrease in the cell viability, with the increase of lactate dehydogenase, total protein and alkaline phosphatase levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the exposed rats. Total leukocyte count and the percentage of neutrophils in BALF were elevated within 24h of post exposure. The concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) were significantly increased in the BALF and in the blood throughout the observation period. The level of malondialdehyde was elevated with the decreased levels of intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) in the lung after exposure. The alveolar macrophages (AMs) and neutrophils overloaded with phagocytosed CeO2 NPs were observed along with non-phagocytosed free CeO2 NPs that were deposited over the epithelial surfaces of the bronchi, bronchiole and alveolar regions of lungs within 24h of post exposure and were consistent throughout the observation period. A well distributed, multifocal pulmonary microgranulomas due to impairment of clearance mechanism leading to biopersistence of CeO2 NPs for an extended period of time were observed at the end of the 14 day post exposure period. These results suggest that acute exposure of CeO2 NPs through inhalation route may induce cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and may lead to a chronic inflammatory response. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Pakki U.V.S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Atmakuru R.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Biofuels | Year: 2017

Commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was pretreated by hydrogenolysis, followed by solvated electron-assisted hydrolysis in Na/liquid NH3 medium. The reducing sugar (RS) yield achieved was 98% at 2.2 M concentration of Na/liquid NH3 at 120 °C for about 10 min of hydrolysis time. The MCC hydrolysis conditions were optimized by checking the influence of the molar concentrations of Na metal in liquid NH3 at various temperatures and reaction times for the high RS yield. The RS was estimated by the di-nitro salicylic acid (DNSA) method. The hydrolyzed residues and raw MCC were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystallinity index of the MCC was significantly decreased from 79.34% to 37.25%. The IR and SEM images and TGA data clearly indicate that the cellulose was completely hydrolyzed. © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Mohana Krishnan B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Prakhya B.M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
NeuroToxicology | Year: 2016

Effects of pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin) on the burst parameters (mean burst rate [MBR], percent spikes in burst [PSB], mean burst duration [MBD], mean spikes in burst [MSB], mean interspike interval in burst [MISIB], and mean interburst interval [MIBI]) have been investigated using the microelectrode array technique. Rat cortical neuronal networks (between 24 and 35 DIV) were exposed to the five accumulative concentrations of pyrethroids (0.01 μM, 0.1 μM, 1 μM, 10 μM, and 100 μM) after initially recording the baseline activity. When compared to the baseline, the burst parameter that had undergone the most change (either increase/decrease) at the initial concentrations was MBR, followed by MIBI and PSB. The other burst parameters (MSB, MBD, and MISIB) did not undergo much change (either increase/decrease) by the pyrethroids at the initial concentrations when compared to the baseline. The MBR of all pyrethroids rose at initial concentrations followed by decrease at higher concentrations. A drop in the MIBI accompanied the rise in the MBR. The rank orders of relative potency of pyrethroids on the IC50 of different burst parameters clearly distinguish type-1 pyrethroids (bifenthrin, permethrin) from the type-2 pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), with type-2 being more potent. The rank order of relative potency of pyrethroids based on the IC50 of MBR was beta-cyfluthrin > lambda-cyhalothrin > deltamethrin > cypermethrin > bifenthrin > permethrin. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Francis A.P.,Anna University | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Devasena T.,Anna University
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

We have optimized a protocol for the preparation of bisdemethoxy curcumin analog nanoparticles (BDMCA-NP) by the solvent assisted process. The structural similarities between bulk and nano BDMCA were determined by Co-TLC, NMR and FTIR. This shows that our synthesis protocol enhanced the dispersibility and reduce the size of BDMCA without altering the integrity of functional moieties and structure, which is crucial for anticancer and antioxidant activities. The morphology and size of BDMCA-NP as determined by SEM, HRTEM and DLS was found to be around 80 nm. BDMCA-NP treated breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7) showed cell death as characterized by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of BDMCA-NP treated MCF 7 cell lines showed an increase of cell count in G2/M phase indicates the cell cycle arrest. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of caspase 3, caspase 9, cleaved fragments of PARP and Bax proteins in the BDMCA-NP treated MCF 7 cell lines, but not in untreated cell lines. To recap, we have prepared BDMCA-NP by solvent assisted process, which exerted anticancer activity against breast cancer cells, which may be due to (i) enhanced dispersibility and surface: volume ratio, (ii) apoptosis (iii) mitochondrial pathway induced cell death, (iv) G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and (v) disassembly of mitotic spindle of the cancer cells. Thus, nano BDMCA can be used as a potent anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

Chirukuri R.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Atmakuru R.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

The dissipation kinetics and the adsorption characteristics of bispyribac sodium, a pyrimidinyloxybenzoic herbicide, in 21 types of soil collected from different locations in the U.S., Italy, Spain, Greece, France, U.K., the Netherlands, Germany, and India were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The soil sorption study was conducted using the batch equilibrium process. The paper also investigated the adsorption efficiency of bispyribac sodium in the presence of different kinds of background electrolytes, surfactants, and different temperatures in two different soils. The results showed that the Freundlich equation fits its adsorption well, and the Freundlich adsorption constant values (Kf) ranged from 0.3 to 5.6mLg-1. Adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, with 1/nf values <1. Bispyribac sodium adsorption by two soils increased with increasing electrolytes concentration using CaCl2, KCl, NH4Cl, KH2PO4 and MgCl2 as a background electrolytes. The adsorption coefficient value decreased when anionic and nonionic surfactants were used at the three surfactant concentrations in two types of soil but increased with cationic surfactant, and temperature. Sorption was positively correlated with OM and negatively correlated with a soil pH of 5.0 to 8.1. The free energy (δG) values of bispyribac sodium in the soils were less than 40kJmol-1 and negative values were obtained. This indicates that the adsorption of bispyribac sodium is mainly a physical and spontaneous process. The GUS values were less than 2.9 in all the soil types studied, and the residues of bispyribac sodium were low to moderate to leacher (mobile) in the soil. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Murkunde Y.V.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2010

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are close analogues of animal cholesterol. Brassinosteroids have shown their great value as yield promoters of a variety of plants. In view of its steroidal moiety and recent use in agriculture in many countries, the teratogenic potential of homobrassinolide (HBR) was evaluated in Wistar rats. Homobrassinolide was administered by oral gavage at doses 0, 100, and 1000 mg/kg body weight in water during gestation days (GD) 6 to 15 in groups of 20 mated females. Maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity was analyzed by studying the effects such as clinical signs, mortality/morbidity, abortions, body weight, feed consumption, and pregnancy data, gravid uterine weights, implantation losses, litter size, external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. No treatment-related effect was observed on any of the maternal/fetal end points in any dose group. From the results, it can be concluded that HBR is nonteratogenic at doses as high as up to 1000 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. © The Author(s) 2010.

Vardhini N.V.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Rao P.J.M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Sudhakar G.,Andhra University
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among females. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of a homeobox gene (HOXD10) in human invasive ductal breast cancer tissues and normal tissues. With the ACTB (β-actin) gene as a reference, HOXD10 was detected in 60 breast cancer tissues by using the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method with the Relative Expression Software Tool (REST). We found that the HOXD10 expression level was significantly different between cancerous and normal tissues. Downregulation of the HOXD10 gene expression was examined in high-grade samples. Low-grade tissue showed no difference from the control group. HOXD10 expression was reduced in grade II breast carcinoma tissues. This data reveal that misexpression of the HOXD10 gene supports the development and involvement in breast cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of human ductal invasive breast carcinoma. © 2014, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).

Thiripura Sundari M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Ramesh A.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The cellulose nanofibers from the water blocking aquatic weed - water hyacinth was successfully prepared. The crude and pure cellulose microfibers were initially obtained from the weed plant by following chemical treatments such as bleaching, alkaline and sodium chlorite reactions. The micron-sized fibers obtained from the stems were cryocrushed with liquid nitrogen to release the bundles of nanofibers and followed the sonication for individualization of fibers. The treated fibers were screened through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the removal of impurities from the fibers. The surface morphology of the aqueous suspension before cryocrushing and after the sonication process was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal stability of the fiber was increased after chemical treatment; this was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The synthesized nanofibers were in the diameter range of 20-100 nm from the SEM and 25 nm from the TEM analysis. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Aalapati S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Ganapathy S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Manapuram S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Anumolu G.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Prakya B.M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2014

Male CD1 mice were subjected to nose-inhalation exposure of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days with 14 or 28 days of recovery time at an aerosol concentration of 2 mg/m3. Markers of lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), oxidative stress in lungs, bio-accumulation, and histopathology of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues were assessed. BALF analysis revealed the induction of pulmonary inflammation, as evident by an increase in the influx of neutrophils with a significant secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to generation of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, as is evident by induction of lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase and protein. The histopathological examination revealed that these inhaled CeO2 NPs were located all over the pulmonary parenchyma, inducing a severe, chronic, active inflammatory response characterised by necrosis, proteinosis, fibrosis and well-formed discrete granulomas in the pulmonary tissue and tubular degeneration leading to coagulative necrosis in kidneys. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer results showed a significant bio-accumulation of these particles in the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues, even after one month of post-inhalation exposure. Together, these findings suggest that inhalation exposure of CeO2 NPs can induce pulmonary and extrapulmonary toxicity. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.

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