International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT

Padappai, India

International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT

Padappai, India

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Francis A.P.,Anna University | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Devasena T.,Anna University
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology | Year: 2014

We have optimized a protocol for the preparation of bisdemethoxy curcumin analog nanoparticles (BDMCA-NP) by the solvent assisted process. The structural similarities between bulk and nano BDMCA were determined by Co-TLC, NMR and FTIR. This shows that our synthesis protocol enhanced the dispersibility and reduce the size of BDMCA without altering the integrity of functional moieties and structure, which is crucial for anticancer and antioxidant activities. The morphology and size of BDMCA-NP as determined by SEM, HRTEM and DLS was found to be around 80 nm. BDMCA-NP treated breast cancer cell lines (MCF 7) showed cell death as characterized by MTT assay. Flow cytometric analysis of BDMCA-NP treated MCF 7 cell lines showed an increase of cell count in G2/M phase indicates the cell cycle arrest. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of caspase 3, caspase 9, cleaved fragments of PARP and Bax proteins in the BDMCA-NP treated MCF 7 cell lines, but not in untreated cell lines. To recap, we have prepared BDMCA-NP by solvent assisted process, which exerted anticancer activity against breast cancer cells, which may be due to (i) enhanced dispersibility and surface: volume ratio, (ii) apoptosis (iii) mitochondrial pathway induced cell death, (iv) G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and (v) disassembly of mitotic spindle of the cancer cells. Thus, nano BDMCA can be used as a potent anticancer agent. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.


Chirukuri R.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Atmakuru R.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Chemosphere | Year: 2015

The dissipation kinetics and the adsorption characteristics of bispyribac sodium, a pyrimidinyloxybenzoic herbicide, in 21 types of soil collected from different locations in the U.S., Italy, Spain, Greece, France, U.K., the Netherlands, Germany, and India were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The soil sorption study was conducted using the batch equilibrium process. The paper also investigated the adsorption efficiency of bispyribac sodium in the presence of different kinds of background electrolytes, surfactants, and different temperatures in two different soils. The results showed that the Freundlich equation fits its adsorption well, and the Freundlich adsorption constant values (Kf) ranged from 0.3 to 5.6mLg-1. Adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, with 1/nf values <1. Bispyribac sodium adsorption by two soils increased with increasing electrolytes concentration using CaCl2, KCl, NH4Cl, KH2PO4 and MgCl2 as a background electrolytes. The adsorption coefficient value decreased when anionic and nonionic surfactants were used at the three surfactant concentrations in two types of soil but increased with cationic surfactant, and temperature. Sorption was positively correlated with OM and negatively correlated with a soil pH of 5.0 to 8.1. The free energy (δG) values of bispyribac sodium in the soils were less than 40kJmol-1 and negative values were obtained. This indicates that the adsorption of bispyribac sodium is mainly a physical and spontaneous process. The GUS values were less than 2.9 in all the soil types studied, and the residues of bispyribac sodium were low to moderate to leacher (mobile) in the soil. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Murkunde Y.V.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
International Journal of Toxicology | Year: 2010

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are close analogues of animal cholesterol. Brassinosteroids have shown their great value as yield promoters of a variety of plants. In view of its steroidal moiety and recent use in agriculture in many countries, the teratogenic potential of homobrassinolide (HBR) was evaluated in Wistar rats. Homobrassinolide was administered by oral gavage at doses 0, 100, and 1000 mg/kg body weight in water during gestation days (GD) 6 to 15 in groups of 20 mated females. Maternal and embryo-fetal toxicity was analyzed by studying the effects such as clinical signs, mortality/morbidity, abortions, body weight, feed consumption, and pregnancy data, gravid uterine weights, implantation losses, litter size, external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. No treatment-related effect was observed on any of the maternal/fetal end points in any dose group. From the results, it can be concluded that HBR is nonteratogenic at doses as high as up to 1000 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. © The Author(s) 2010.


Vardhini N.V.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Rao P.J.M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Sudhakar G.,Andhra University
Tumor Biology | Year: 2014

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy among females. In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of a homeobox gene (HOXD10) in human invasive ductal breast cancer tissues and normal tissues. With the ACTB (β-actin) gene as a reference, HOXD10 was detected in 60 breast cancer tissues by using the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method with the Relative Expression Software Tool (REST). We found that the HOXD10 expression level was significantly different between cancerous and normal tissues. Downregulation of the HOXD10 gene expression was examined in high-grade samples. Low-grade tissue showed no difference from the control group. HOXD10 expression was reduced in grade II breast carcinoma tissues. This data reveal that misexpression of the HOXD10 gene supports the development and involvement in breast cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of human ductal invasive breast carcinoma. © 2014, International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).


Parvathi M.V.S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Murthy P.B.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Vennila M.,Salem College
Tumor Biology | Year: 2013

BMI1 is the first functional mammalian Polycomb group (PcG) proto-oncogene involved in multiple biological processes. Regulation of B cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) expression with increase in histological grades of breast carcinoma in correlation with hormone receptor status was studied in 60 Indian breast cancer patient's formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks. Relative expression of BMI1 was studied using real-time PCR. Immunohistochemistry explained the distribution of hormone receptor markers. Correlation of BMI1 gene expression with oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu status was analysed using Hex - protein docking tool. The hormone receptor expression was reduced with increasing grades of breast tumour. BMI1 gene expression was downregulated (real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis). Docking analysis explained the correlation between BMI1 and PR expression. BMI1 gene was co-regulated (down) with PR in the invasive ductal breast carcinoma with relative progression explicating it a diagnostic biomarker for ductal carcinoma of the breast. © 2013 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).


Thiripura Sundari M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Ramesh A.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2012

The cellulose nanofibers from the water blocking aquatic weed - water hyacinth was successfully prepared. The crude and pure cellulose microfibers were initially obtained from the weed plant by following chemical treatments such as bleaching, alkaline and sodium chlorite reactions. The micron-sized fibers obtained from the stems were cryocrushed with liquid nitrogen to release the bundles of nanofibers and followed the sonication for individualization of fibers. The treated fibers were screened through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to confirm the removal of impurities from the fibers. The surface morphology of the aqueous suspension before cryocrushing and after the sonication process was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal stability of the fiber was increased after chemical treatment; this was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The synthesized nanofibers were in the diameter range of 20-100 nm from the SEM and 25 nm from the TEM analysis. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sathya T.N.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Aadarsh P.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Deepa V.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Balakrishna Murthy P.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2010

Chemoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves was evaluated on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced genotoxicity in the mouse. Animals were pre-treated with the extract for seven consecutive days at doses of 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg b.w. Micronucleus in bone marrow and comet (DNA damage) in the liver were performed. Cyclophosphamide was administered intra-peritoneally on day 7 and Mice were sacrificed after 24 hours. In CP treated animals, statistically significant induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) was recorded. However, in the animals pre-treated with the extract, the percentage of CP-induced MN decreased with increasing concentration of the extract. Results of comet assay showed similar decrease in DNA damage in mice pre-dosed with the extract. These results point out to the presence of chemopreventive phytoconstituents in the crude extract offering protection against CP-induced genotoxicity in the mouse. © arjournals.org, All rights reserved.


Aalapati S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Ganapathy S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Manapuram S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Anumolu G.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Prakya B.M.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Nanotoxicology | Year: 2014

Male CD1 mice were subjected to nose-inhalation exposure of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days with 14 or 28 days of recovery time at an aerosol concentration of 2 mg/m3. Markers of lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), oxidative stress in lungs, bio-accumulation, and histopathology of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues were assessed. BALF analysis revealed the induction of pulmonary inflammation, as evident by an increase in the influx of neutrophils with a significant secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to generation of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, as is evident by induction of lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase and protein. The histopathological examination revealed that these inhaled CeO2 NPs were located all over the pulmonary parenchyma, inducing a severe, chronic, active inflammatory response characterised by necrosis, proteinosis, fibrosis and well-formed discrete granulomas in the pulmonary tissue and tubular degeneration leading to coagulative necrosis in kidneys. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer results showed a significant bio-accumulation of these particles in the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues, even after one month of post-inhalation exposure. Together, these findings suggest that inhalation exposure of CeO2 NPs can induce pulmonary and extrapulmonary toxicity. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd.


Srinivas A.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Rao P.J.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Selvam G.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Goparaju A.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | And 2 more authors.
Human and Experimental Toxicology | Year: 2012

In this research, we investigated the toxicity responses of rat following a continuous 4 h inhalation exposure of only the head and nose to iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs, size = 15-20 nm). The rats for the investigation were exposed to a concentration of 640 mg/m3 Fe3O4 NPs. Markers of lung injury and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood, oxidative stress in lungs, and histopathology were assessed on 24 h, 48 h, and 14 days of postexposure periods. Our results showed a significant decrease in the cell viability, with the increase in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase in the BALF. Total leukocyte count and the percentage of neutrophils in BALF increased within 24 h of postexposure. Immediately following acute exposure, rats showed increased inflammation with significantly higher levels of lavage and blood proinflammatory cytokines and were consistent throughout the observation period. Fe3O4 NPs exposure markedly increased malondialdehyde concentration, while intracellular reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in lung tissue within 24-h postexposure period. On histological observation, the lung showed an early activation of pulmonary clearance and a size-dependant biphasic nature of the Fe3O4 NPs in causing the structural alteration. Collectively, our data illustrate that Fe3O4 NPs inhalation exposure may induce cytotoxicity via oxidative stress and lead to biphasic inflammatory responses in Wistar rat. © The Author(s) 2012.


Pasupuleti S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Alapati S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Ganapathy S.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Anumolu G.,International Institute of Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | And 2 more authors.
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2012

This experiment was aimed to determine the significance of dose by comparing acute oral toxicological potential of nano-sized zinc oxide (20 nm) with its micro-sized zinc oxide. Sprague Dawley rats, 8 to 9 weeks old, were administered with 5, 50, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) of nano- and micro-sized zinc oxide suspended in distilled water once through oral gavage. The effects of the micro- and nano-sized zinc oxide on biochemical and hematological parameters were analyzed on day 14 of administration. The organs were collected for histopathology. Interestingly, inverse dose-dependent increase was noted in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase serum levels of nano-size zinc oxide groups when compared with their micro-sized zinc oxide. Clotting time was effected in all the male groups of nano-size zinc oxide, except in 1000 mg/kg b.w. The incidences of microscopic lesions in liver, pancreas, heart and stomach were higher in lower doses of nano-size zinc oxide compared to higher dose. However, the incidences of above lesions were higher in rats treated with a high dose of micro-sized zinc oxide. We conclude that nano-size zinc oxide exhibited toxicity at lower doses, thus alarming future nanotoxicology research needs to be focused on importance of dose metrics rather following the conventional methods while conducting in vivo experiments. © The Author(s) 2012.

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