Spatenkova O.,Aalto University |
Stein A.,ITC International Institute for GeoInformation Science and Earth Observation
International Journal of Geographical Information Science | Year: 2010
Domestic fires at the city level, being causes for casualties and causing significant material damages, are stored as a point pattern in a GIS. In this paper we apply a statistical point pattern analysis to derive major causes from related layers of information. We fit a G-function to analyse neighbourhood relations and a Strauss process for inferring causal relations. Using open-source software we find significant differences in patterns and explaining factors between the different parts of the day, in particular for different building types and income groups. We conclude that a quantitative spatial model can be fitted and that this provides a useful opportunity for fire brigades to improve planning their efforts. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.
Li X.,ITC International Institute for GeoInformation Science and Earth Observation |
Li X.,Chang'an University |
Kraak M.-J.,ITC International Institute for GeoInformation Science and Earth Observation
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010
Traditionally the GIScience community is well able to deal with the locational and attribute component of spatiooral data. However, the methods and techniques to deal with the data's temporal component are less developed. This paper introduces a conceptual framework that combines user tasks, available temporal data and visualization theories to discuss temporal visualization. Two limitations of existing method are improved by introducing the time wave environment which is a close combination of temporal graphic representation and temporal interactive tools, and operates in so-called time space. A case study based on meteorological data illustrates the approach.
Kandwal R.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee |
Augustijn E.-W.,ITC International Institute for GeoInformation Science and Earth Observation |
Stein A.,ITC International Institute for GeoInformation Science and Earth Observation |
Miscione G.,ITC International Institute for GeoInformation Science and Earth Observation |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Health Geographics | Year: 2010
Background: In Geographical Information Systems issues of scale are of an increasing interest in storing health data and using these in policy support. National and international policies on treating HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) positive women in India are based on case counts at Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers (VCTCs). In this study, carried out in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, these centers are located in subdistricts called mandals, serving for both registration and health facility policies. This study hypothesizes that people may move to a mandal different than their place of residence for being tested for reasons of stigma. Counts of a single mandal therefore may include cases from inside and outside a mandal. HIV counts were analyzed on the presence of outside cases and the most likely explanations for movement. Counts of women being tested on a practitioners' referral (REFs) and those directly walking-in at testing centers (DWs) were compared and with counts of pregnant women.Results: At the mandal level incidence among REFs is on the average higher than among DWs. For both groups incidence is higher in the South-Eastern coastal zones, being an area with a dense highway network and active port business. A pattern on the incidence maps was statistically confirmed by a cluster analysis. A spatial regression analysis to explain the differences in incidence among pregnant women and REFs shows a negative relation with the number of facilities and a positive relation with the number of roads in a mandal. Differences in incidence among pregnant women and DWs are explained by the same variables, and by a negative relation with the number of neighboring mandals. Based on the assumption that pregnant women are tested in their home mandal, this provides a clear indication that women move for testing as well as clues for explanations why.Conclusions: The spatial analysis shows that women in India move towards a different mandal for getting tested on HIV. Given the scale of study and different types of movements involved, it is difficult to say where they move to and what the precise effect is on HIV registration. Better recording the addresses of tested women may help to relate HIV incidence to population present within a mandal. This in turn may lead to a better incidence count and therefore add to more reliable policy making, e.g. for locating or expanding health facilities. © 2010 Kandwal et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.