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Satterthwaite D.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change

This article considers the prospects for urban areas in the Global South to adapt to climate change. It describes how most of the needed adaptations in the next few decades can be integrated into existing government functions, investments, regulations, and agencies. It also considers why most such measures are unlikely to be implemented-because of either the lack of capacity within urban governments or their unwillingness to address the infrastructure and service needs of their low-income populations. Most urban centers in the Global South also have very large deficits in the basic infrastructure and services that are needed for resilience to climate change impacts. The article also considers how the policies and practices of higher levels of government and international agencies need to change if the much needed adaptive capacity is to be built in urban areas. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Fergutz O.,Fundacion AVINA | Dias S.,Women in Informal Employment Globalizing and Organizing WIEGO | Mitlin D.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED
Environment and Urbanization

In Brazil's large cities, more than half a million people survive by collecting and selling solid waste. Most face very poor working conditions and have very low incomes as the intermediaries to whom they sell pay low prices. Their activities are even considered illegal in some nations. But the waste pickers save city governments money, contribute to cleaner cities and reduce the volume of waste that has to be dumped (by up to 20 per cent). After describing the waste pickers and the city and national associations they have created, this paper describes the recycling industry and gives some examples of better methods of recycling. These include waste picker cooperatives that can sell the materials they collect direct to industries and that have partnerships with city governments who provide access to wastes, better prices and facilities to improve working conditions (including transferring the recycling from dumps to recycling centres). © 2011 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Source

Horstmann B.,German Development Institute | Abeysinghe A.C.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED
Climate Law

The Adaptation Fund of the Kyoto Protocol is seen by many as a model for financing adaptation activities, which should also play a strong role in the institutional design of the Green Climate Fund under the UNFCCC. The article analyses whether the status of operationalization of the Adaptation Fund meets international institutional criteria and requirements for an effective and efficient fund arrangement. These are derived from the UNFCCC and the Paris Agenda on Aid Effectiveness. The analysis shows that the Adaptation Fund meets most of the funding requirements. Due to its institutional features, particularly the direct-access modality, the Adaptation Fund has the potential to practically link international climate change with development finance for adaptation to climate change. However, the analysis also shows that there are a number of challenges remaining, including criteria which the fund does not meet yet and the practical implementation of fund operations, particularly at the national level. © 2012-IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source

Satterthwaite D.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED
Environment and Urbanization

The impacts of climate change in any city are obviously influenced by the quality of its housing and other buildings, its infrastructure and services. These were not built with climate change risks in mind, although they were influenced by environmental health risks that were present when they were constructed (including those from extreme weather) and often by responses to past disasters. Well-governed cities that have greatly reduced these risks have accumulated resilience to the climate change impacts that exacerbate (or will exacerbate) these risks. In so doing, they have also developed the social, political, financial and institutional structures that provide the basis for addressing these and other risks. These structures were developed through social, environmental and political reforms, driven by such factors as democracy, decentralization and strong social movements representing the needs of those with limited incomes, or other factors associated with vulnerability. These "bottom-up" pressures from citizens and civil society on national and city governments are critical for developing the institutions and measures to reduce climate change-related risks (especially for those most at risk) and to support resilience. © 2013 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Source

Pretty J.,University of Essex | Toulmin C.,International Institute for Environment and Development IIED | Williams S.,Iju Isaga
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability

Over the past half-century, agricultural production gains have provided a platform for rural and urban economic growth worldwide. In African countries, however, agriculture has been widely assumed to have performed badly. Foresight commissioned analyses of 40 projects and programmes in 20 countries where sustainable intensification has been developed during the 1990s-2000s. The cases included crop improvements, agroforestry and soil conservation, conservation agriculture, integrated pest management, horticulture, livestock and fodder crops, aquaculture and novel policies and partnerships. By early 2010, these projects had documented benefits for 10.39 million farmers and their families and improvements on approximately 12.75 million ha. Food outputs by sustainable intensification have been multiplicative - by which yields per hectare have increased by combining the use of new and improved varieties and new agronomic-agroecological management (crop yields rose on average by 2.13-fold), and additive - by which diversification has resulted in the emergence of a range of new crops, livestock or fish that added to the existing staples or vegetables already being cultivated. The challenge is now to spread effective processes and lessons to many more millions of generally small farmers and pastoralists across the whole continent. These projects had seven common lessons for scaling up and spreading: (i) science and farmer inputs into technologies and practices that combine crops-animals with agroecological and agronomic management; (ii) creation of novel social infrastructure that builds trust among individuals and agencies; (iii) improvement of farmer knowledge and capacity through the use of farmer field schools and modern information and communication technologies; (iv) engagement with the private sector for supply of goods and services; (v) a focus on women's educational, microfinance and agricultural technology needs; (vi) ensuring the availability of microfinance and rural banking; and (vii) ensuring public sector support for agriculture. This research forms part of the UK Government's Foresight Global Food and Farming project. © 2011 Earthscan. Source

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