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Dodman D.,International Institute for Environment and Development
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2011

The contribution of urban areas to global greenhouse gas emissions has received substantial recent attention, in order both to allocate responsibility for climate change and to identify appropriate mitigation responses. The paper summarises these arguments, highlighting the challenges involved in creating an accurate and comparative measure of this. It shows how geography, urban form, and the urban economy influence the emissions from any given city. It then examines the use of 'production'-based and 'consumption'-based approaches for measuring emissions, and shows how particular lifestyles can be seen as the underlying drivers for manufacturing, food production, deforestation, and other activities that generate greenhouse gases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Romero-Lankao P.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Dodman D.,International Institute for Environment and Development
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2011

Urban centres of different sizes - especially cities - play a crucial role in managing global carbon emissions and reducing vulnerability to climate change. This overview paper draws on the papers in this issue (as well as a wider array of literature) to provide an analytical review of the carbon and climate relevance of urbanization and of some of the interactions between urbanization and global environmental change. The authors' insights are used to inform a more general set of reflections on the nature of urban and environmental change, and the linkages between the two. Three over-arching themes are identified: the centrality of vulnerability and resilience as concepts shaping urban responses to climate change; the growing recognition of the role of specific governance mechanisms and systems at different scales in shaping the design and implementation of responses; and the particularities, cross-cutting issues and connections between cities from different regions (e.g., Europe, East Africa) in addressing this challenge. Notwithstanding the rapidly growing volume of information on this area of research, the challenge will be to develop frameworks to understand and effectively respond to the complex interactions between urban development, the carbon cycle and the climate system, and to turn the hazards resulting from human pressures on the environment into sources of opportunities and innovations aimed at building more resilient and sustainable cities. © 2011.

Cannon T.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Muller-Mahn D.,University of Bayreuth
Natural Hazards | Year: 2010

The paper discusses how the current climate change debate influences the way in which development is conceptualised, negotiated and implemented. The objective of the article is to explore some of the underlying controversies that characterise development discourses in the context of climate change. Adaptation to climate change goes along with a significant shift in discourses used to deal with what is normally called development. This is reflected in shifting research interests and perspectives, from vulnerability studies to resilience thinking. However, the paper argues, this shift is problematic for the normative contents of development and especially for a pro-poor and grass roots perspective. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: ENV.2009. | Award Amount: 4.33M | Year: 2010

POLICYMIX aims to contribute to achieving the EUs goals of reversing trends in biodiversity loss beyond 2010 through the use of cost-effective and incentive-compatible economic instruments. POLICYMIX focuses on the role of economic instruments in a mix of operational conservation policy instruments. To this end, POLICYMIX will develop an integrated evaluation framework that considers multiple policy assessment criteria biodiversity and ecosystem service provision indicators; valuation of their economic benefit and policy implementation costs; social and distributional impacts; and legal and institutional constraints at different levels of government. This multi-level approach is of paramount importance for effective biodiversity conservation policy given the overlap between ecological systems and systems of governance in practice. In particular, we evaluate the cost-effectiveness and benefits of a range of economic instruments vis--vis direct regulation through command-and-control in a variety of European and Latin American case studies. The suite of selected POLICYMIX case studies aims to provide complementary examples of innovative economic instruments such as Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) and ecological fiscal transfers, and assess the possibilities for transfer of policy success stories, providing concrete learning possibilities for policy-makers. POLICYMIX actively uses advisory boards including land-users, local managers and national policy-makers, who collaborate with our researchers in the feasibility assessments of economic instruments. Based on this science-policy dialogue, POLICYMIX will develop a stepwise framework for carrying out policy assessment using available data, multi-criteria spatial targeting tools and tiered policy selection matrices. The POLICYMIX approach to policy design at multiple government levels is highly complementary with on-going EU ecological research on multi-scale conservation prioritization.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SFS-18-2015 | Award Amount: 4.96M | Year: 2016

SALSA will assess the role of small farms and small food businesses in delivering a sustainable and secure supply of affordable, nutritious and culturally adequate food. SALSA will identify the mechanisms which, at different scales, can strengthen the role of small farms in food systems and thereby support sustainable food and nutrition security (FNS). By considering a gradient of 30 reference regions in Europe and in Africa, we will obtain a differentiated understanding of the role of small farms and small food businesses in very differently structured food systems and situations. SALSA will elaborate and implement a transdisciplinary, multi-scale approach that builds on and connects relevant theoretical and analytical frameworks within a food systems approach, and that uses qualitative, consultative and quantitative methods. We will also test a new combination of data-based methods and tools (including satellite technologies) for rigorously assessing in quantitative terms the interrelationships between small farms, other small food businesses and FNS, paying particular attention to limiting and enabling factors. SALSA will use participatory methods, at regional level, and establish a more global Community of Practice and multi-stakeholder learning platform, based on FAOs TECA online communication and learning platform. The SALSA consortium, and the joint learning and close cooperation, have both been designed with the EU - Africa dialogue in mind. Responding to the call we will unravel the complex interrelationships between small farms, small food businesses and FNS, and unfold the role played by small farms in (a) the balance between the different dimensions of sustainability, (b) maintaining more diverse production systems, (c) supporting the urban/rural balance in terms of labour and (d) in facilitating territorial development in countries facing a strong rural population growth.

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