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Dodman D.,International Institute for Environment and Development
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability

The contribution of urban areas to global greenhouse gas emissions has received substantial recent attention, in order both to allocate responsibility for climate change and to identify appropriate mitigation responses. The paper summarises these arguments, highlighting the challenges involved in creating an accurate and comparative measure of this. It shows how geography, urban form, and the urban economy influence the emissions from any given city. It then examines the use of 'production'-based and 'consumption'-based approaches for measuring emissions, and shows how particular lifestyles can be seen as the underlying drivers for manufacturing, food production, deforestation, and other activities that generate greenhouse gases. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Romero-Lankao P.,U.S. National Center for Atmospheric Research | Dodman D.,International Institute for Environment and Development
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability

Urban centres of different sizes - especially cities - play a crucial role in managing global carbon emissions and reducing vulnerability to climate change. This overview paper draws on the papers in this issue (as well as a wider array of literature) to provide an analytical review of the carbon and climate relevance of urbanization and of some of the interactions between urbanization and global environmental change. The authors' insights are used to inform a more general set of reflections on the nature of urban and environmental change, and the linkages between the two. Three over-arching themes are identified: the centrality of vulnerability and resilience as concepts shaping urban responses to climate change; the growing recognition of the role of specific governance mechanisms and systems at different scales in shaping the design and implementation of responses; and the particularities, cross-cutting issues and connections between cities from different regions (e.g., Europe, East Africa) in addressing this challenge. Notwithstanding the rapidly growing volume of information on this area of research, the challenge will be to develop frameworks to understand and effectively respond to the complex interactions between urban development, the carbon cycle and the climate system, and to turn the hazards resulting from human pressures on the environment into sources of opportunities and innovations aimed at building more resilient and sustainable cities. © 2011. Source

Cannon T.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Muller-Mahn D.,University of Bayreuth
Natural Hazards

The paper discusses how the current climate change debate influences the way in which development is conceptualised, negotiated and implemented. The objective of the article is to explore some of the underlying controversies that characterise development discourses in the context of climate change. Adaptation to climate change goes along with a significant shift in discourses used to deal with what is normally called development. This is reflected in shifting research interests and perspectives, from vulnerability studies to resilience thinking. However, the paper argues, this shift is problematic for the normative contents of development and especially for a pro-poor and grass roots perspective. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Godfray H.C.J.,University of Oxford | Beddington J.R.,U.K. Government Office for Science | Crute I.R.,Agriculture and Horticulture Development Board | Haddad L.,Institute of Development Studies | And 6 more authors.

Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here. © 2010 American Association for the Advancement for Science. All Rights Reserved. Source

Ayers J.M.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Huq S.,International Institute for Environment and Development | Faisal A.M.,Asian Development Bank | Hussain S.T.,Climate Change Capital
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change

The close linkages between climate change adaptation and development have led to calls for addressing the two issues in an integrated way. 'Mainstreaming' climate information, policies and measures into ongoing development planning and decision-making has been proposed as one solution, seen as making more sustainable, effective and efficient use of resources than designing and managing climate policies separately from ongoing development activities. But what does mainstreaming look like in practice? This article explores the process of mainstreaming, drawing on the country case study of Bangladesh, one of the countries that have made significant progress on adaptation planning and mainstreaming. The article begins by making the case for mainstreaming, by exploring the linkages and trade-offs between adaptation and development and describing the various approaches to mainstreaming from the literature. Second, it considers how to implement mainstreaming in practice, reviewing an existing four-step framework. Examining this framework against the plethora of mainstreaming experiences in Bangladesh, the article considers how the framework can be used as a tool for assessing the progress of mainstreaming progress in Bangladesh. The article concludes that while the framework is useful for considering some of the preconditions necessary for getting mainstreaming underway, experiences of mainstreaming in Bangladesh reflect a much more complex patchwork of processes and stakeholders that need to be taken into consideration in further research on this topic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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