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Baskar K.,Entomology Research Institute | Sudha V.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Nattudurai G.,Entomology Research Institute | Ignacimuthu S.,Entomology Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

The development of eco-friendly mosquito control tools is of key importance for public health worldwide. In the present study, the essential oil [EO] from Atalantia monophylla essential oil was tested for larvicidal and repellent activity against three species of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The EO showed acute toxicity against 2nd and 4th instar larvae of the tested mosquitoes, Notably, LC50 ranged from 7 to 16 ppm. EO tested as repellent at 50 ppm protected for 336 e366 min against three mosquito species. Different concentrations of EO showed mortality in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the LC50 value was 69.59 ppm. The EO did not show any allergic reaction on tested volunteers upto 50 ppm. While pure EO was tested slight itching was observed on the 2nd and 3rd volunteer. GC-MS analysis of A. monophylla EO showed the presence of 40 phytochemicals in different ratios, among them eugenol, sabinene, 1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-methoxyethenyl)benzene and beta-asarone are major compounds. Overall, the EO showed high larvicidal and repellent activity against three mosquito vectors with limited impact on non-target zebrafish. Therefore, EO from A. monophylla could be a valuable source for the development of mosquito repellents and larvicides. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Sambandam B.,Anna University | Devasena T.,Anna University | Hairul Islam V.I.,Pondicherry Center for Biological science | Prakhya B.M.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Indian Journal of Experimental Biology | Year: 2015

Coal combustion generates considerable amount of ultrafine particles and exposure to such particulate matter is a major health concern in the developing countries. In this study, we collected nano sized coal fly ash (CFA) and characterized them by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), particle size analyzer (PSA) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and investigated its toxicity in vitro using different cell lines. The imaging techniques showed that the coal fly ash nanoparticles (CFA-NPs) are predominately spherical shaped. The analyses have revealed that the CFA-NPs are 7-50 nm in diameter and contain several heavy metals associated with CFA particles. The studies showed significant amount of toxicity in all cell lines on treatment with CFA-NPs. The cytotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage caused by CFA-NPs were determined by inhibition of cellular metabolism (MTT), total intracellular glutathione (GSH), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA fragmentation in cultured cell lines (Chang liver, HS294T and LL29). The cellular metabolism was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner in CFA-NPs treated cell lines. The CFA-NPs induced ROS and decreased the total intracellular glutathione with increased dose. Further, the CFA-NPs treated cells showed severe DNA laddering as a result of DNA fragmentation. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication. All rights reserved.


Sambandam B.,Anna University | Palanisami E.,M S Swaminathan Research Foundation Taramani | Abbugounder R.,Anna University | Prakhya B.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Thiyagarajan D.,Anna University
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2014

The present study illustrates the characterization and cytotoxicity studies of coal fly ash nanoparticles (CFA-NPs). The coal fly ash (CFA) collected from electrostatic precipitator of a coal-fired power plant and the average size of the CFA-NPs was found to be 9-50 nm. Imaging techniques showed predominantly homogenous spherical shaped nanoparticles. The X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analysis spectra reveal the elemental constituents of the CFA-NPs contain several toxic heavy metals. Cytotoxicity of CFA-NPs was determined by MTT assay. Cellular metabolism is inhibited in a dose dependent manner by CFA concentrations varying from 13 to 800 μg mL -1. After 48 h exposure, the Hep2, A549 and HepG2 cell lines prove more sensitive to CFA-NPs at varying levels which results in IC50 (50 % inhibitory concentration) cytotoxicity end point. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Murthy P.B.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Kishore A.S.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT | Surekha P.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2012

The skin irritation test is designed for the prediction of acute skin irritation of nanoparticles by measurement of its cytotoxic effect, as reflected in the MTT assay, on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues are commercially available. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Murthy P.B.,International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2012

The skin irritation test is designed for the prediction of acute skin irritation of nanoparticles by measurement of its cytotoxic effect, as reflected in the MTT assay, on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues are commercially available.


PubMed | International Institute for Biotechnology and Toxicology IIBAT
Type: | Journal: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) | Year: 2012

The skin irritation test is designed for the prediction of acute skin irritation of nanoparticles by measurement of its cytotoxic effect, as reflected in the MTT assay, on the Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RHE) model. RHE tissues are commercially available.

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