Krzystolik K.,Pomeranian Medical University |
Krzystolik K.,International Hereditary Cancer Center |
Jakubowska A.,International Hereditary Cancer Center |
Gronwald J.,International Hereditary Cancer Center |
And 5 more authors.
Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice | Year: 2014
Patients with intragenic mutations of the VHL gene have a typical disease presentation. However in cases of large VHL gene deletions which involve other genes in the proximity of the VHL gene a presentation of the disease can be different.To investigate whether large VHL deletions that remove the FANCD2 gene have an effect on the disease phenotype, we studied a family with a 50 kb large deletion encompassing these two genes. Four patients in this family were affected by VHL-related lesions. However one carrier of the deletion also had bilateral ductal breast cancer at age 46 and 49. Both tumors were of ~2 cm in diameter. On one side lymph nodes were affected. One tumor was ER- and PR-negative (HER2 s unknown) and the second was ER- and PR-positive, and HER2-negative.Our study suggests that a deletion of FANCD2 gene, an important gene in the DNA repair pathway, may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but further studies are needed in this regard. © 2014 Krzystolik et al.
Delahaye-Sourdeix M.,International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC WHO |
Anantharaman D.,Genetic Epidemiology Group |
Timofeeva M.N.,Genetic Epidemiology Group |
Timofeeva M.N.,International Agency for Research on Cancer |
And 48 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute | Year: 2015
Deleterious BRCA2 genetic variants markedly increase risk of developing breast cancer. A rare truncating BRCA2 genetic variant, rs11571833 (K3326X), has been associated with a 2.5-fold risk of lung squamous cell carcinoma but only a modest 26% increase in breast cancer risk. We analyzed the association between BRCA2 SNP rs11571833 and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer risk with multivariable unconditional logistic regression adjusted by sex and combinations of study and country for 5942 UADT squamous cell carcinoma case patients and 8086 control patients from nine different studies. All statistical tests were two-sided. rs11571833 was associated with UADT cancers (odds ratio = 2.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.89 to 3.38, P = 3x10-10) and was present in European, Latin American, and Indian populations but extremely rare in Japanese populations. The association appeared more apparent in smokers (current or former) compared with never smokers (P het =. 026). A robust association between a truncating BRCA2 variant and UADT cancer risk suggests that treatment strategies orientated towards BRCA2 mutations may warrant further investigation in UADT tumors. © 2015 © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
Charbonneau B.,Mayo Medical School |
Block M.S.,Mayo Medical School |
Bamlet W.R.,Health science Research |
Vierkant R.A.,Health science Research |
And 137 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2014
A missense single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the immune modulatory gene IL1A has been associated with ovarian cancer risk (rs17561). Although the exact mechanism through which this SNP alters risk of ovarian cancer is not clearly understood, rs17561 has also been associated with risk of endometriosis, an epidemiologic risk factor for ovarian cancer. Interleukin-1a (IL1A) is both regulated by and able to activate NF-kB, a transcription factor family that induces transcription of many proinflammatory genes and may be an important mediator in carcinogenesis. We therefore tagged SNPs in more than 200 genes in the NF-kB pathway for a total of 2,282 SNPs (including rs17561) for genotype analysis of 15,604 cases of ovarian cancer in patients of European descent, including 6,179 of high-grade serous (HGS), 2,100 endometrioid, 1,591 mucinous, 1,034 clear cell, and 1,016 low-grade serous, including 23,235 control cases spanning 40 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. In this large population, we confirmed the association between rs17561 and clear cell ovarian cancer [OR, 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-0.93; P < 0.00075], which remained intact even after excluding participants in the prior study (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P < 0.006). Considering a multiple-testing-corrected significance threshold of P < 2.5 ± 10-5, only one other variant, the TNFSF10 SNP rs6785617, was associated significantly with a risk of ovarian cancer (low malignant potential tumors OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.79-0.91; P < 0.00002). Our results extend the evidence that borderline tumors may have a distinct genetic etiology. Further investigation of how these SNPs might modify ovarian cancer associations with other inflammation-related risk factors is warranted. © 2013 AACR.
MacGregor S.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research |
Montgomery G.W.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research |
Liu J.Z.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research |
Zhao Z.Z.,Queensland Institute of Medical Research |
And 54 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011
We performed a genome-wide association study of melanoma in a discovery cohort of 2,168 Australian individuals with melanoma and 4,387 control individuals. In this discovery phase, we confirm several previously characterized melanoma-associated loci at MC1R, ASIP and MTAPĝ€" CDKN2A. We selected variants at nine loci for replication in three independent case-control studies (Europe: 2,804 subjects with melanoma, 7,618 control subjects; United States 1: 1,804 subjects with melanoma, 1,026 control subjects; United States 2: 585 subjects with melanoma, 6,500 control subjects). The combined meta-analysis of all case-control studies identified a new susceptibility locus at 1q21.3 (rs7412746, P = 9.0 × 10 -11, OR in combined replication cohorts of 0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.95)). We also show evidence suggesting that melanoma associates with 1q42.12 (rs3219090, P = 9.3 × 10 -8). The associated variants at the 1q21.3 locus span a region with ten genes, and plausible candidate genes for melanoma susceptibility include ARNT and SETDB1. Variants at the 1q21.3 locus do not seem to be associated with human pigmentation or measures of nevus density. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mathers J.C.,Northumbria University |
Movahedi M.,University of Leeds |
Movahedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Macrae F.,Royal Melbourne Hospital |
And 31 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012
Background: Observational studies report that higher intake of dietary fibre (a heterogeneous mix including non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starches) is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer, but no randomised trials with prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint have been done. We assessed the effect of resistant starch on the incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods: In the CAPP2 study, individuals with Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to receive 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo, for up to 4 years. Randomisation was done with a block size of 16. Post-intervention, patients entered into double-blind follow-up; participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint for this analysis was development of colorectal cancer in participants randomly assigned to resistant starch or resistant-starch placebo with both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. This study is registered, ISRCTN 59521990. Findings: 463 patients were randomly assigned to receive resistant starch and 455 to receive resistant-starch placebo. At a median follow-up 52·7 months (IQR 28·9-78·4), 53 participants developed 61 primary colorectal cancers (27 of 463 participants randomly assigned to resistant starch, 26 of 455 participants assigned to resistant-starch placebo). Intention-to-treat analysis of time to first colorectal cancer showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·40 (95% CI 0·78-2·56; p=0·26) and Poisson regression accounting for multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1·15 (95% CI 0·66-2·00; p=0·61). For those completing 2 years of intervention, per-protocol analysis yielded a HR of 1·09 (0·55-2·19, p=0·80) and an IRR of 0·98 (0·51-1·88, p=0·95). No information on adverse events was gathered during post-intervention follow-up. Interpretation: Resistant starch had no detectable effect on cancer development in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer. Dietary supplementation with resistant starch does not emulate the apparently protective effect of diets rich in dietary fibre against colorectal cancer. Funding: European Union, Cancer Research UK, Bayer Corporation, National Starch and Chemical Co, UK Medical Research Council, Newcastle Hospitals Trustees, Cancer Council of Victoria Australia, THRIPP South Africa, The Finnish Cancer Foundation, SIAK Switzerland, and Bayer Pharma. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Burn J.,Northumbria University |
Gerdes A.-M.,Northumbria University |
Gerdes A.-M.,Rigshospital |
MacRae F.,Royal Melbourne Hospital |
And 30 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2011
Observational studies report reduced colorectal cancer in regular aspirin consumers. Randomised controlled trials have shown reduced risk of adenomas but none have employed prevention of colorectal cancer as a primary endpoint. The CAPP2 trial aimed to investigate the antineoplastic effects of aspirin and a resistant starch in carriers of Lynch syndrome, the major form of hereditary colorectal cancer; we now report long-term follow-up of participants randomly assigned to aspirin or placebo. In the CAPP2 randomised trial, carriers of Lynch syndrome were randomly assigned in a two-by-two factorial design to 600 mg aspirin or aspirin placebo or 30 g resistant starch or starch placebo, for up to 4 years. Randomisation was in blocks of 16 with provision for optional single-agent randomisation and extended postintervention double-blind follow-up; participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was development of colorectal cancer. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered, ISRCTN59521990. 861 participants were randomly assigned to aspirin or aspirin placebo. At a mean follow-up of 55·7 months, 48 participants had developed 53 primary colorectal cancers (18 of 427 randomly assigned to aspirin, 30 of 434 to aspirin placebo). Intention-to-treat analysis of time to first colorectal cancer showed a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·63 (95 CI 0·35-1·13, p=0·12). Poisson regression taking account of multiple primary events gave an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0·56 (95 CI 0·32- 0·99, p=0·05). For participants completing 2 years of intervention (258 aspirin, 250 aspirin placebo), per-protocol analysis yielded an HR of 0·41 (0·19-0·86, p=0·02) and an IRR of 0·37 (0·18-0·78, p=0·008). No data for adverse events were available postintervention; during the intervention, adverse events did not differ between aspirin and placebo groups. 600 mg aspirin per day for a mean of 25 months substantially reduced cancer incidence after 55·7 months in carriers of hereditary colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to establish the optimum dose and duration of aspirin treatment. European Union; Cancer Research UK; Bayer Corporation; National Starch and Chemical Co; UK Medical Research Council; Newcastle Hospitals trustees; Cancer Council of Victoria Australia; THRIPP South Africa; The Finnish Cancer Foundation; SIAK Switzerland; Bayer Pharma. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Movahedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences |
Movahedi M.,University of Leeds |
Bishop D.T.,University of Leeds |
Macrae F.,Royal Melbourne Hospital |
And 22 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2015
Purpose: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk in patients with Lynch syndrome (LS). Patients and Methods: Participants with LS were recruited to the CAPP2 study, in which they were randomly assigned to receive aspirin 600 mg per day or aspirin placebo, plus resistant starch 30 g per day or starch placebo (2×2 factorial design). Mean intervention period was 25.0 months, and mean follow-up was 55.7 months. Results: During follow-up, 55 of 937 participants developed CRC. For obese participants, CRC risk was 2.41 X (95% CI, 1.22 to 4.85) greater than for underweight and normal-weight participants (reference group), and CRC risk increased by 7% for each 1-kg/m2 increase in body mass index. The risk of all LS-related cancers in obese people was 1.77× (95% CI, 1.06 to 2.96; P = .03) greater than for the reference group. In subgroup analysis, obesity was associated with 3.72× (95% CI, 1.41 to 9.81) greater CRC risk in patients with LS with MLH1 mutation, but no excess risk was observed in those with MSH2 or MSH6 mutation (P = .5). The obesity-related excess CRC risk was confined to those randomly assigned to the aspirin placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.12 to 6.79; P = .03). Conclusion: Obesity is associated with substantially increased CRC risk in patients with LS, but this risk is abrogated in those taking aspirin. Such patients are likely to benefit from obesity prevention and/or regular aspirin. © 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology. All rights reserved.
Phase II, open-label, randomized, multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and recurrent ovarian cancer
Kaye S.B.,National Health Research Institute |
Lubinski J.,International Hereditary Cancer Center |
Matulonis U.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute |
Ang J.E.,National Health Research Institute |
And 12 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012
Purpose: Olaparib (AZD2281), an orally active poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor that induces synthetic lethality in BRCA1- or BRCA2-deficient cells, has shown promising clinical efficacy in nonrandomized phase II trials in patients with ovarian cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 deficiency. We assessed the comparative efficacy and safety of olaparib and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in this patient population. Patients and Methods: In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase II study, patients with ovarian cancer that recurred within 12 months of prior platinum therapy and with confirmed germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were enrolled. Patients were assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to olaparib 200 mg twice per day or 400 mg twice per day continuously or PLD 50 mg/m 2 intravenously every 28 days. The primary efficacy end point was Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) -assessed progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Results: Ninety-seven patients were randomly assigned. Median PFS was 6.5 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 10.1 months), 8.8 months (95% CI, 5.4 to 9.2 months), and 7.1 months (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.7 months) for the olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.56; P = .66) for combined olaparib doses versus PLD. RECIST-assessed ORRs were 25%, 31%, and 18% for olaparib 200 mg, olaparib 400 mg, and PLD, respectively; differences were not statistically significant. Tolerability of both treatments was as expected based on previous trials. Conclusion: The efficacy of olaparib was consistent with previous studies. However, the efficacy of PLD was greater than expected. Olaparib 400 mg twice per day is a suitable dose to explore in further studies in this patient population. © 2011 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Reeves S.G.,Hunter Medical Research Institute |
Meldrum C.,Peter Macallum Cancer Institute |
Groombridge C.,John Hunter Hospital |
Spigelman A.,John Hunter Hospital |
And 5 more authors.
Cancer Epidemiology | Year: 2012
DNA repair plays a pivotal role in maintaining genomic integrity with over 130 genes involved in various repair pathways that include base excision repair, nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair and DNA mismatch repair. Polymorphisms within genes that are involved in these processes have been widely reported to be associated with cancer susceptibility in an extensive range of malignancies that include colorectal cancer (CRC). Lynch syndrome is caused by inherited germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, predominantly in MLH1 and MSH2, that predispose to a variety of epithelial malignancies, most notably CRC. Despite being a relatively well understood hereditary cancer syndrome there remain several questions in relation to genetic influences on disease expression. Since Lynch syndrome is associated with a breakdown in DNA mismatch repair variation in other DNA repair genes may influence disease expression. In this report we have genotyped 424 Australian and Polish Lynch syndrome participants for eight common DNA repair gene polymorphisms to assess any association with the age of CRC onset. The DNA repair gene SNPs included in the study were: BRCA2 (rs11571653), MSH3 (rs26279), Lig4 (rs1805386), OGG1 (rs1052133), XRCC1 (rs25487), XRCC2 (rs3218536 and rs1799793) and XRCC3 (rs861539). Cox multi-variant regression modelling failed to provide any convincing evidence of an effect in any of the polymorphisms analysed. The data suggest that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes do not contribute to cancer risk in a population of CRC patients who are at increased risk of disease as a result in a deficiency of DNA mismatch repair. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.