Panthi S.,Travel and Mountain Medicine Center |
Basnyat B.,International Health Sciences University
Journal of Association of Physicians of India | Year: 2013
Increasing number of Hindu pilgrims visit the Himalayas where some of them suffer from high altitude illness including the life threatening forms, high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) and high altitude cerebral oedema. Compared to tourists and trekkers, pilgrims are usually ignorant about altitude illness. This is a case of a pilgrim who suffered from HAPE on his trip to Kailash-Mansarovar and is brought to a tertiary level hospital in Kathmandu. This report emphasises on how to treat a patient with HAPE, a disease which is increasingly being seen in the high altitude pilgrim population. © JAPI.
Clausen L.N.,Copenhagen University |
Clausen L.N.,International Health Sciences University |
Astvad K.,Copenhagen University |
Ladelund S.,Copenhagen University |
And 3 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2012
Objective: We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and genotype may influence all-cause mortality in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. DESIGN AND Methods: Observational prospective cohort study. Mortality rates were compared in a time-updated multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Results: We included 264 consecutive HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. During 1143 person years at risk (PYR) 118 individuals died [overall mortality rate 10 (95% confidence interval; 8, 12)/100 PYR]. In multivariate analysis, a 1 log increase in HCV viral load was associated with a 30% higher mortality risk [adjusted mortality rate ratio (aMRR): 1.30 (1.10,1.54)] when adjusted for sex, age, HIV exposure group, CD4+ cell count, HIV RNA, HCV genotype and interleukin (IL)-28B genotype. Further, HCV genotype 3 vs. 1 [aMRR: 1.83 (1.12, 2.98)] and HIV RNA [aMRR: 3.14 (1.37,7.17) for undetectable vs. just detectable HIV RNA] were independent predictors of mortality, whereas a higher CD4+ cell count was associated with a 41% reduction in mortality rate per 50 cell increase between 0 and 200cells/μl [aMRR: 0.59 (0.48, 0.72)] and a 10% reduction for increases above 200cells/μl [aMRR: 0.90 (0.82-0.98)]. IL28B) CC genotype was associated with 54% higher mortality risk [aMRR: 1.54 (0.89, 3.82] compared to TT genotype. Conclusion: High-HCV viral load, HCV genotype 3 and IL28B genotype CC had a significant influence on the risk of all-cause mortality among individuals coinfected with HIV-1. This may have consequences for the management of HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Maraghi S.,International Health Sciences University |
Jafari K.M.,Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences |
Sadjjadi S.M.,Shiraz University of Medical Sciences |
Latifi S.M.,Health Science University |
Zibaei M.,Alborz University of Medical Science
Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering | Year: 2014
Background: Toxocariasis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases caused by Toxocara larva stage in humans. One of the major transmission routes of infection, especially in children is pica. The aim of this topic was study the contamination of Abadan public parks with Toxocara eggs. Materials and methods: Two hundred and ninety one samples of soil were collected from 31 parks. The samples were examined for Toxocara spp. eggs by modified floatation method using saturated sucrose. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 19 and Chi-square test. Results: Eighty five (29.2%) out of 291 samples were infected with Toxocara spp. eggs, means19 (61.2%) of the 31 parks were contaminated. There was no significant difference between the urban and suburb parks contamination (p = 0.208) but there was significant relation between contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs and traces of cats and dogs presence in the parks (p = 0.001). Conclusion: As the contamination of Abadan public parks soil with Toxocara spp. eggs is relatively high, the people and specially children might get the contamination during stay in the parks and measures should be taken to control the stray cats and dogs. © 2014 Maraghi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. T.
Duffy K.,International Medical Group |
Galukande M.,Mulago Hospital |
Wooding N.,International Health Sciences University |
Dea M.,Centers for Disease Control |
Coutinho A.,Makerere University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Introduction:Modelling, supported by the USAID Health Policy Initiative and UNAIDS, performed in 2011, indicated that Uganda would need to perform 4.2 million medical male circumcisions (MMCs) to reach 80% prevalence. Since 2010 Uganda has completed 380,000 circumcisions, and has set a national target of 1 million for 2013.Objective:To evaluate the relative reach and cost-effectiveness of PrePex compared to the current surgical SMC method and to determine the effect that this might have in helping to achieve the Uganda national SMC targets.Methods:A cross-sectional descriptive cost-analysis study conducted at International Hospital Kampala over ten weeks from August to October 2012. Data collected during the performance of 625 circumcisions using PrePex was compared to data previously collected from 10,000 circumcisions using a surgical circumcision method at the same site. Ethical approval was obtained.Results:The moderate adverse events (AE) ratio when using the PrePex device was 2% and no severe adverse events were encountered, which is comparable to the surgical method, thus the AE rate has no effect on the reach or cost-effectiveness of PrePex. The unit cost to perform one circumcision using PrePex is $30.55, 35% ($7.90) higher than the current surgical method, but the PrePex method improves operator efficiency by 60%, meaning that a team can perform 24 completed circumcisions compared to 15 by the surgical method. The cost-effectiveness of PrePex, comparing the cost of performing circumcisions to the future cost savings of potentially averted HIV infections, is just 2% less than the current surgical method, at a device cost price of $20.Conclusion:PrePex is a viable SMC tool for scale-up with unrivalled potential for superior reach, however national targets can only be met with effective demand creation and availability of trained human resource. © 2013 Galukande et al.
Ghaneian M.T.,University of Yazd |
Ghanizadeh G.,Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University |
Alizadeh M.T.H.,International Health Sciences University |
Ehrampoush M.H.,University of Yazd |
Said F.M.,Universiti Malaysia Pahang
Environmental Technology (United Kingdom) | Year: 2014
Pyrolysis of fresh sheep bone led to the formation of bone charcoal (BC). The structural characteristics of BC and surface area were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). N2 gas adsorption-desorption was analysed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm model. The prepared BC was used as an effective sorbent for the removal of phosphate from aqueous solutions. The effect of major parameters, including initial phosphorous concentration, sorbent dosage, pH and temperature, was investigated in this study. Furthermore, adsorption isotherms and kinetics were evaluated. BC was an effective sorbent in phosphate removal from aqueous solution especially in phosphate concentration between 2 and 100 mg/L. The maximum amount of sorption capacity was 30.21 mg/g, which was obtained with 100 mg/L as the initial phosphate concentration and 0.2 g as the sorbent dosage. Best reported pH in this study is 4; in higher pH, adsorption rate decreased dramatically. By increasing the temperature from 20 to 40°C sorption capacity increased; this phenomenon described that adsorption is endothermic. Equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms. Pseudo first-and second-order and Elovich models were used to determine the kinetics of adsorption in this study. Collected data highly fitted with Freundlich isotherms and pseudo second-order kinetics. Achieved results have shown well the potentiality for the BC to be utilized as a natural sorbent to remove phosphorous from water and wastewater. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.