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Hu H.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Wu F.-L.L.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Wu F.-L.L.,National Taiwan University | Hu F.-C.,International Harvard Statistical Consulting Company | And 5 more authors.
Pediatrics and Neonatology | Year: 2013

Background: The effectiveness of education programs for pediatric patients receiving oral antibiotic suspension was unclear. Methods: When pediatric patients were prescribed antibiotics in powder form for suspension at the outpatient clinic of a university hospital, the responsible 150 caregivers were consecutively allocated into three education programs: Group 1 subjects read the package insert; Group 2 read a photograph-designed educational sheet; and Group 3 received a face-to-face medication education from a pharmacist with the photograph-designed educational sheet. The effectiveness of the three education programs for pediatric patients' caregivers was evaluated using a questionnaire comprised of 12 questions. Results: The proportions of the caregivers in Groups 1, 2 and 3 who answered the questionnaire perfectly with 100% accuracy were 2%, 14% and 74%, respectively (p < 0.001). The means ± standard deviations of the overall time spent by the caregivers in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were 353 ± 135, 334.2 ± 115.1, and 281.4 ± 114 seconds, respectively (p = 0.013). Clearly, the pharmacist's face-to-face mediation education program provided effective and time-saving medication instructions for pediatric oral antibiotics. The specific questions regarding easy-to-make errors related to the reconstitution step (p < 0.001), water volume for reconstitution (p < 0.001), storage temperature (p = 0.004) and shelf life (p = 0.002) of stock powder, whether the drug should be taken before or after a meal (p < 0.001), and the method and volume for syrup measurement (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that when compared to reading a package insert or education sheet, a pharmacist's verbal education with photographic education materials was significantly more effective and time-saving in providing caregivers with the correct knowledge of oral antibiotic suspensions in pediatrics. Copyright © 2012, Taiwan Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

Wu V.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Huang T.-M.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Lai C.-F.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Shiao C.-C.,Saint Mary's College | And 19 more authors.
Kidney International | Year: 2011

Existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is among the most potent predictors of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Here we quantified this risk in a multicenter, observational study of 9425 patients who survived to hospital discharge after major surgery. CKD was defined as a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <45 ml/min per 1.73 m 2. AKI was stratified according to the maximum simplified RIFLE classification at hospitalization and unresolved AKI defined as a persistent increase in serum creatinine of more than half above the baseline or the need for dialysis at discharge. A Cox proportional hazard model showed that patients with AKI-on-CKD during hospitalization had significantly worse long-term survival over a median follow-up of 4.8 years (hazard ratio, 3.3) than patients with AKI but without CKD. The incidence of long-term dialysis was 22.4 and 0.17 per 100 person-years among patients with and without existing CKD, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio for long-term dialysis in patients with AKI-on-CKD was 19.8 compared to patients who developed AKI without existing CKD. Furthermore, AKI-on-CKD but without kidney recovery at discharge had a worse outcome (hazard ratios of 4.6 and 213, respectively) for mortality and long-term dialysis as compared to patients without CKD or AKI. Thus, in a large cohort of postoperative patients who developed AKI, those with existing CKD were at higher risk for long-term mortality and dialysis after hospital discharge than those without. These outcomes were significantly worse in those with unresolved AKI at discharge. © 2011 International Society of Nephrology.

Tseng M.-C.M.,National Taiwan University | Tseng M.-C.M.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Lin Y.-P.,National Yang Ming University | Hu F.-C.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Risk Analysis | Year: 2013

Little is known about the perceived health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and factors associated with risk perception in non-Western countries. Psychological conditions and risk perception have been postulated as factors that facilitate the attribution of health complaints to environmental factors. This study investigated people's perceived risks of EMFs and other environmental sources, as well as the relationships between risk perception, psychopathology, and the degree of self-reported sensitivity to EMFs. A total of 1,251 adults selected from a nationwide telephone interviewing system database responded to a telephone survey about the relationships between environmental sources and human health. The interview included questions assessing participants' psychiatric conditions and the presence and degree of sensitivity to EMFs. One hundred and seventy participants were self-identified as having sensitivity to EMFs, and 141 met the criteria for psychiatric conditions without EMF sensitivity. More than half of the survey respondents considered power lines and mobile phone base stations to affect people's health to a big extent. Higher sensitivity to EMFs, psychopathology, being female, being married, more years of education, and having a catastrophic illness had positive associations with perceived risks of EMF-related environmental sources as well as for all environmental sources combined. We observed no moderating effect of psychopathology on the association between degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. Thus, psychopathology had influence on general people's risk perception without having influence on the relationship between people's degree of sensitivity to EMF and risk perception. The plausible explanations are discussed in the text. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

Ko M.-J.,Taipei City Hospital | Ko M.-J.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Yang J.-Y.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Yang J.-Y.,Far Eastern Memorial Hospital | And 9 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2011

Summary Background Pruritus is very common in uraemic patients, but the treatment remains challenging. Studies regarding narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy for uraemic pruritus are rare. Objectives To investigate whether or not NB-UVB phototherapy is an effective treatment for uraemic pruritus. Methods We conducted a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial for patients with refractory uraemic pruritus. The treatment group received NB-UVB phototherapy three times per week for 6 weeks. The dose of NB-UVB started from 210 mJ cm -2 and was increased by 10% each time. The control group received time-matched exposures to long-wave UVA radiation. A visual analogue scale (VAS) score was evaluated weekly for pruritus intensity for 12 weeks. The characteristics of pruritus were also assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 weeks of phototherapy. Results Both the NB-UVB and control groups had significant and comparable improvement in the pruritus intensity VAS scores during the period of phototherapy and follow-up. Compared with the control group, the NB-UVB group showed a significant improvement in the involved body surface area affected by pruritus (P = 0·006), but not in sleep quality. More detailed regression and estimating analysis revealed that the patients in the NB-UVB group had lower pruritus intensity scores at week 6, week 10 and week 12. This may indicate a beneficial difference at certain time points, but the effect seems marginal. Conclusions NB-UVB phototherapy does not show a significant effect in reducing pruritus intensity compared with a control group for refractory uraemic pruritus. Further studies are warranted. © 2011 British Association of Dermatologists.

Hsu C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Shen Y.-C.,National Taiwan University | Shen Y.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Cheng C.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Gastric Cancer | Year: 2012

Background The standard of chemotherapy regimens for advanced or metastatic gastric cancer and the clinical outcome were heterogeneous in Asian versus non-Asian countries. This study aimed to explore predictors of safety and efficacy of chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic gastric cancer. Methods Treatment group-based meta-analysis and metaregression were performed to analyze results of randomized trials published since 2005 for advanced or metastatic gastric cancer patients who received systemic chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Data were extracted and synthesized according to the Cochrane guidelines. Results Twenty-five trials (8 Asian, 17 Western or international) with 56 treatment groups were analyzed. Asian trials reported a lower percentage of gastroesophageal junctional carcinoma, higher percentage of diffusetype histology, and more frequent use of second-line chemotherapy. Meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity both in treatment safety (grade 3-4 neutropenia and diarrhea) and efficacy [6-month progression-free survival (PFS) and 1-year overall survival (OS)]. Meta-regression analyses indicate that Asian trials are associated with an 8.2% lower incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia and 2.1% lower incidence of grade 3-4 diarrhea. A lower percentage of patients with gastroesophageal junction carcinoma and the use of combination regimens predicted better PFS. The use of second-line chemotherapy predicts better 1-year OS, which will increase by 10% for every 10% increase in patients who received second-line chemotherapy. Conclusion Geographic region (Asian vs. non-Asian) is an independent predictor of safety in systemic therapy for gastric cancer. © 2011 The International Gastric Cancer Association and The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

Wu S.-G.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Hu F.-C.,International Harvard Statistical Consulting Company | Chang Y.-L.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Lee Y.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | And 9 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presenting with miliary intrapulmonary carcinomatosis (MIPC) is rare. We investigated the clinical characteristics and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation rate of NSCLC patients with MIPC at initial diagnosis. From June 2004 to December 2008, we screened newly diagnosed NSCLC patients for MIPC using image-based criteria. We recorded clinical data and analysed EGFR mutation status. For comparison, we collected specimens from stage IV NSCLC patients without MIPC tested for EGFR mutations from April 2001 to November 2008. From 3,612 NSCLC patients, 85 patients with MIPC at initial diagnosis were identified; 81 had adenocarcinoma. Of the 85 patients, 60 had specimen sequencing to detect EGFR mutation; 42 (70%) were positive. Compared with 673 stage IV patients without MIPC, patients with MIPC had higher EGFR mutation rate (p=0.036); even male smokers had a high EGFR mutation rate (91%). Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for overall survival of the 85 patients with MIPC revealed that adenocarcinoma, absence of extrapulmonary metastasis and having EGFR mutation were associated with longer overall survival. NSCLC patients with MIPC at initial diagnosis had higher rates of adenocarcinoma and EGFR mutation. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibition may be the treatment of choice for NSCLC patients with MIPC at initial diagnosis among Asians.

Lai C.-F.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Wu V.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Huang T.-M.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Yeh Y.-C.,National Taiwan University Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2012

Introduction: The adverse consequences of a non-dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. This study aimed to assess the long-term prognoses for critically ill patients experiencing a non-dialysis-requiring AKI.Methods: This retrospective observational cohort study investigated non-dialysis-requiring AKI survivors in surgical intensive care units between January 2002 and June 2010. All longitudinal post-discharge serum creatinine measurements and information regarding end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death were collected. We assessed the long-term outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD), ESRD and all-cause mortality beyond discharge.Results: Of the 922 identified critically ill patients with a non-dialysis-requiring AKI, 634 (68.8%) patients who survived to discharge were enrolled. A total of 207 patients died after a median follow-up of 700.5 days. The median intervals between the onset of the AKI and the composite endpoints "stage 3 CKD or death", "stage 4 CKD or death", "stage 5 CKD or death", and "ESRD or death" were 685, 1319, 1743, and 2048 days, respectively. This finding shows a steady long-term decline in kidney function after discharge. Using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, we found that every 1 mL/min/1.73 m 2decrease from baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of individuals who progressed to stage 3, 4, and 5 CKD increased the risks of long-term mortality by 0.7%, 2.3%, and 4.1%, respectively (all p < 0.05). This result indicates that the mortality risk increased significantly in a graded manner as kidney function declined from the baseline eGFR to advanced stages of CKD during the follow-up period.Conclusions: In critically ill patients who survive a non-dialysis-requiring AKI, there is a need for continuous monitoring and kidney function protection beyond discharge. © 2012 Lai et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Tseng M.C.M.,National Taiwan University Hospital | Tseng M.C.M.,National Taiwan University | Hu F.-C.,National Taiwan University | Hu F.-C.,International Harvard Statistical Consulting Company
Journal of Psychosomatic Research | Year: 2012

Objective: The implications of impulsivity in its relationship with binge-eating or purging behaviors remain unclear. This study examined the patterns of eating behaviors and co-morbid impulsive behaviors in individuals with bulimia nervosa n optimally homogeneous classes using latent class analysis (LCA). Methods: All participants (n=180) were asked to complete a series of self-reported inventories of impulsive behaviors and other psychological measures. Information regarding the lifetime presence of symptoms of eating disorder was assessed by clinical interviews. LCA was conducted using eating disorder symptoms, impulsive behaviors, and the number of purging methods. Results: Three latent classes of bulimic women were identified. These were women who exhibited relatively higher rates of purging, symptoms of impulsive behavior, and multiple purging methods (17.8%), women who used no more than one purging method with a low occurrence of impulsive behavior (41.7%), and women who showed higher rates of purging behaviors and the use of multiple purging methods with a low rate of impulsive behavior (41.7%). The impulsive sub-group had comparable severity of eating-related measures, frequency of binge-eating, and higher levels of general psychopathology than that of the other two sub-groups. Conclusion: This study provides empirical support for the existence of an impulsive subgroup with distinctive features among a non-Western group of BN patients. This study also suggests that mechanisms other than impulse dysregulation may exist for the development of binge-eating and purging behaviors in bulimia nervosa patients, or the mechanisms contributing to binge-eating and impulsive behaviors may be different. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

PubMed | National Health Research Institute, International Harvard Statistical Consulting Company, National Taiwan University and National Taiwan University Hospital
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

The risk for herpes zoster (HZ) in acute kidney injury (AKI) survivors was never explored. We identified 2,387 adults in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database who recovered from dialysis-requiring AKI and matched them with non-recovery and non-AKI patients by propensity score. During a mean follow-up of 2.7 years, the incidences of HZ were 6.9, 8.2 and 4.8 episodes per 1,000 person-years in AKI-non-recovery, AKI-recovery and non-AKI group, respectively. The recovery group was more likely to develop herpes zoster than those without acute kidney injury [incidence-rate ratios 1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.52; p=0.007]. Patients without acute kidney injury were less likely to develop herpes zoster than those AKI, recovered from dialysis or not (hazard ratio HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46-0.95). Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury poses a long-term risk of herpes zoster after hospital discharge. Even patients who have recovered from dialysis still carry a significantly higher risk of developing herpes zoster.

PubMed | National Taiwan University Hospital, China Medical University at Taichung, Sin Ren Hospital, Mackay Memorial Hospital and 22 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nephrology (Carlton, Vic.) | Year: 2016

Acute kidney injury (AKI) carries an increasing incidence rate worldwide and increases the risk of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as the medical expenses during the post-AKI course. The Taiwan Consortium for Acute Kidney Injury and Renal Diseases (CAKs) has thus launched a nationwide epidemiology and prognosis of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (NEP-AKI-D) study, which prospectively enrols critically ill patients with AKI. Through thoroughly evaluating the risk and prognostic factors of AKI, we hope to lower the incidence of AKI and ESRD from the perspective of AKI-ESRD interaction.The CAKs includes 30 hospitals which distribute widely through the four geographical regions (north, middle, south, and east) of Taiwan, and have a 1:1 ratio of medical centres to regional hospitals in each region. The NEP-AKI-D study enrols intensive care unit-based AKI patients who receive dialysis in the four seasonal sampled months (October 2014, along with January, April, and July 2015) in the included hospitals. The collected data include demographic information, pertaining laboratory results, dialysis settings and patient outcomes. The data are uploaded in a centre website and will be audited by on-site principal investigators, computer logic gates, and the CAKs staffs. The outcomes of interest are in-hospital mortality, dialysis-dependency and readmission rate within 90 days after discharge.The NEP-AKI-D study enrols a large number of representative AKI patients throughout Taiwan. The results of the current study are expected to provide more insight into the risk and prognostic factors of AKI and further attenuated further chronic kidney disease transition.

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