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Kim I.C.,Joongbu University | Yang J.H.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | Hur S.S.,Joongbu University
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2010

An optimized manufacturing process was developed for the production of high-quality loess red ginseng using a hybrid process in which loess (yellow earth) was incorporated into the conventional ginseng manufacturing process system. We designed conventional ginseng processing facilities and prepared the loess module by baking loess that contained 42% water at 860°C for 8 h. The loess module showed excellent performance in deodorization and humidity control. The optimum steaming temperature at which maximum expansion of starch organisms occurred was 90 to 98°C. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.

Lee Y.M.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim J.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim C.-S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Jo K.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in the development of diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy. 5′-methoxybiphenyl-3,4,3′-triol (referred to as K24) was isolated using bioactivity-guided fractionation of Osteomeles schwerinae C. K. Schneid. and identified as a potent AGE inhibitor. To identify the protective effect of K24 on disruption of the blood-retinal barrier, AGE-RSA was intravitreally injected into rat eyes. K24 had an inhibitory effect on AGE-RSA-induced retinal vascular leakage by suppressing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreasing the loss of occludin. In addition, we examined whether K24 has a preventive effect against retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. K24 significantly reduced the retinal non-perfused area and neovascular tufts in the OIR mice. These data indicate that K24 could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent blood-retinal barrier breakage and retinal pathogenic angiogenesis through an anti-VEGF mechanism. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pyo M.K.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | Choi S.-H.,Konkuk University | Shin T.-J.,Konkuk University | Hwang S.H.,Konkuk University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2011

Ginseng has been used as a general tonic agent to invigorate the human body as an adaptogenic agent. In a previous report, we have shown that ginseng contains a novel glycolipoprotein called gintonin. The main function of gintonin is to transiently enhance intracellular free Ca2+ [Ca2+]i levels in animal cells. The previous method for gintonin isolation included multiple steps using organic solvents. In the present report, we developed a simple method for the preparation of crude gintonin from ginseng root as well as stem and leaf, which produced a higher yield of gintonin than the previous one. The yield of gintonin was 0.20%, 0.29%, and 0.81% from ginseng root, stem, and leaf, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of gintonin isolated from stem and leaf through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was almost same as that from root but the compositions of amino acids, carbohydrates or lipids differed slightly between them. We also examined the effects of crude gintonin from ginseng root, stem, and leaf on endogenous Ca2+-activated Cl- channel (CaCC) activity of Xenopus oocytes through mobilization of [Ca2+] i. We found that the order of potency for the activation of CaCC was ginseng root > stem > leaf. The ED50 was 1.4±1.4, 4.5±5.9, and 3.9±1.1 μg/mL for root, stem and leaf, respectively. In the present study, we demonstrated for the first time that in addition to ginseng root, ginseng stem and leaf also contain gintonin. Gintonin can be prepared from a simple method with higher yield of gintonin from ginseng root, stem, and leaf. Finally, these results demonstrate the possibility that ginseng stem and leaf could also be utilized for ginstonin preparation after a simple procedure, rather than being discarded. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.

Kwon S.-U.,Wonkwang University | Cha J.-Y.,Wonkwang University | Lee H.-Y.,Wonkwang University | Xin M.,Wonkwang University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2015

Euphorbia maculata (EM) is a traditionally used antidiarrheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant agent. However, the effects of EM on platelet activity remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the antiplatelet effect of various EM extract fractions on platelet aggregation in rats. The antiplatelet activity of the EM fractions on collagen or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was evaluated in vitro and ex vivo. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation, rat-tail bleeding time and coagulation time were also measured. Among the fractions, the chloroform fraction of EM (CFEM) significantly inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, oral administration of 50 mg/kg CFEM to rats significantly reduced ADP-induced platelet aggregation without increasing the tail bleeding time or coagulation time. In addition, EM significantly inhibited the level of TXB2 formation in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that CFEM exhibits antiplatelet activity, without causing bleeding, via the suppression of TXB2 formation. CFEM may be a type of food which has the potential for preventing cardiovascular disease.

Lee I.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim J.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim Y.S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Yoo N.H.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2012

Six new cycloartane-type triterpenes (1-6), 24-methylenecycloartane- 3β,6β,7β-triol (1), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β, 7β,16β-tetraol (2), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β- triol (3), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,7β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (4), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β, 16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (5), and 24-methylenecycloartane- 3β,6β,7β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (6), were isolated from the leaves of Homonoia riparia, together with one known compound, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (7). The structures of the new triterpenes were established by spectroscopic studies and from chemical evidence, and the inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 3-7 on VEGF-induced vascular permeability were examined in vivo in rats using the Miles assay. In addition, the inhibitory effect of 7 on VEGF-induced tube formation by HUVECs in vitro was investigated. © 2012 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

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