International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute

Kinzan, South Korea

International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute

Kinzan, South Korea
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Seo Y.-S.,Wonkwang University | Shon M.-Y.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | Kong R.,Wonkwang University | Kang O.-H.,Wonkwang University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ethnopharmacological relevance Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes. Processed ginseng named Black ginseng exhibits more potent biological activities than white and red ginseng. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black ginseng extract (GBG05-FF) on hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Materials and methods Black ginseng was produced by a repeated steaming and drying process, subsequent extraction with 70% ethanol, filtration, and lyophilization. The effect of GBG05-FF on glucose uptake and related protein expression and phosphorylation were determined in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of GBG05-FF in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Results GBG05-FF significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes via AMPK, Sirt1 and PI3-K pathway. In addition, GBG05-FF improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice. GBG05-FF decreased blood parameters such as glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Quantitative RT-PCR assay revealed that in the STZ-induced diabetic mice treated with GBG05-FF, the expression of hepatic genes involved in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase)), glycogenolysis (liver glycogen phosphorylase (LGP)) and glycogenesis (glycogen synthase (GS)) was suppressed, while the expression of the genes involved in glucose uptake (glucose transporter (GLUT) 1, GLUT4) and β-oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a), mitochondrial medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)) in muscle were increased. GBG05-FF delayed diabetes-associated muscle atrophy by activating mTOR. The major bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3(S), Rg3(R), Rg5, Rk1 and Rh4 were evaluated for glucose uptake effect in C2C12 myotubes; the data indicated that Rh4 significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake. Conclusion Collectively, the results suggested that GBG05-FF is a potentially useful agent for treatment of diabetes by increasing glucose uptake. © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


Nam K.Y.,Chungnam National University | Choi J.E.,Chungnam National University | Hong S.C.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | Pyo M.K.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | Park J.D.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute
Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy | Year: 2014

Ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) is one of protopanaxadiol ginsenosides characteristic of red ginseng, steamed and dried ginseng (Panax ginseng), which has recently attracted much attention for its antitumor properties in vitro and in vivo animal models. Experimental studies have demonstrated that it could promote cancer cell apoptosis, inhibit cancer cell growth, the apoptosis of cancer cells, adhesion, invasion and metastasis, and also prevent an angiogenetic formation in prostate, breast, ovarian, colorectal, gastric, liver and lung cancer etc. It has shown the antitumor activities by modulation of diverse signaling pathways, including regulation of cell proliferation mediators (CDKs and cyclins), growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor), tumor suppressors (p53 and p21), cell death mediators (caspases, Bcl-2, Bax), inflammatory response molecules (NF-κB and COX-2), protein kinases (JNK, Akt, and AMP-activated protein kinase) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, the combination of Rg3 and chemotherapeutic agents have synergistically enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced antagonistically side effects. Furthermore, it can reverse the multidrug resistance of cancer cells, prolong the survival duration and improve life quality of cancer patients. Taken together, accumulating evidences could provide the potential of G-Rg3 in the treatment of cancers and the feasibility of further randomized placebo controlled clinical trials.


Kim C.-S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Jo K.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim J.S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Pyo M.-K.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: GS-E3D is a newly developed pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extract. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of GS-E3D on diabetes-related renal dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Method: GS-E3D (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight per day) was administered for 6 weeks. The levels of blood glucose and hemoglobin A1c, and of urinary albumin, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were determined. Kidney histopathology, renal accumulation of AGEs, and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were also examined. Results: Administration of GS-E3D for 6 weeks reduced urinary levels of albumin, 8-OHdG, and AGEs in diabetic rats. Mesangial expansion, renal accumulation of AGEs, and enhanced α-SMA expression were significantly inhibited by GS-E3D treatment. Oral administration of GS-E3D dose-dependently improved all symptoms of diabetic nephropathy by inhibiting renal accumulation of AGEs and oxidative stress. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the use of GS-E3D as a food supplement may provide effective treatment of diabetes-induced renal dysfunction. © 2017 The Author(s).


PubMed | Korea Institute of Science and Technology, International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute, Sangji University, Konkuk University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biomolecules & therapeutics | Year: 2016

Quercetin is a flavonoid usually found in fruits and vegetables. Aside from its antioxidative effects, quercetin, like other flavonoids, has a various neuropharmacological actions. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Rham1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Rutin), and quercetin- 3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside (Rham2) are mono-, di-, and tri-glycosylated forms of quercetin, respectively. In a previous study, we showed that quercetin can enhance 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (7 nAChR)-mediated ion currents. However, the role of the carbohydrates attached to quercetin in the regulation of 7 nAChR channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of quercetin glycosides on the acetylcholine induced peak inward current (IACh) in Xenopus oocytes expressing the 7 nAChR. IACh was measured with a two-electrode voltage clamp technique. In oocytes injected with 7 nAChR copy RNA, quercetin enhanced IACh, whereas quercetin glycosides inhibited IACh. Quercetin glycosides mediated an inhibition of IACh, which increased when they were pre-applied and the inhibitory effects were concentration dependent. The order of IACh inhibition by quercetin glycosides was RutinRham1>Rham2. Quercetin glycosides-mediated IACh enhancement was not affected by ACh concentration and appeared voltage-independent. Furthermore, quercetin-mediated IACh inhibition can be attenuated when quercetin is co-applied with Rham1 and Rutin, indicating that quercetin glycosides could interfere with quercetin-mediated 7 nAChR regulation and that the number of carbohydrates in the quercetin glycoside plays a key role in the interruption of quercetin action. These results show that quercetin and quercetin glycosides regulate the 7 nAChR in a differential manner.


Kim G.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee S.-E.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Noh H.-J.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Kwon H.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Ginseng Research | Year: 2012

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of natural bioactive products such as Manda enzyme (T1), Yangmyeongwon (T2), effective microorganisms (T3), and Kelpak (T4) on the growth and ginsenoside contents of Panax ginseng cultured in an aeroponic system using a two-layer vertical type of nutrient bath under natural light conditions. The growth of ginseng plants showed specifi c characteristics according to the positions in which they were cultured due to the difference of light transmittance and temperature in the upper and lower layers during aeroponic culture in a two-layer vertical type of system. The growth of the aerial part of the leaves and stems of ginseng plants cultured in the lower layer (4,000 to 6,000 lx, 23°C to 26°C) of the nutrient bath was observed to be superior to that of the ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer (12,000 to 15,000 lx, 25°C to 28°C). The leaf area was significantly larger in the treatment of T2 and T4 (46.70 cm 2) than with other treatments. Conversely, the values of the root weight and root diameter were higher in ginseng plants cultured in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. The root weight was significantly heavier in the treatment of T4 (6.46 g) and T3 (6.26 g) than with other treatments. The total ginsenoside content in the leaves and roots was highest in the ginseng plants cultured by the treatment of T1, at 16.20%, while the total ginsenoside content obtained by other treatments decreased in the order of T4, T5 (control), T2, and T3, at 13.21%, 12.30%, 14.84%, and 14.86%, respectively. The total ginsenoside content of the ginseng leaves was found to be significantly higher in the treatment of T1 in the lower layer of the nutrient bath, at 15.30%, while the content of the ginseng roots in the treatments of T3 and T4, at 1.27% and 1.23%, respectively, was significantly higher than in other treatments in the upper layer of the nutrient bath. © The Korean Society of Ginseng.


Lee I.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim J.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim Y.S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Yoo N.H.,International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2012

Six new cycloartane-type triterpenes (1-6), 24-methylenecycloartane- 3β,6β,7β-triol (1), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β, 7β,16β-tetraol (2), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,16β- triol (3), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,7β,16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (4), 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β, 16β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (5), and 24-methylenecycloartane- 3β,6β,7β-triol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (6), were isolated from the leaves of Homonoia riparia, together with one known compound, 24-methylenecycloartane-3β,6β,7β,16β-tetraol 3-O-β-d-xylopyranoside (7). The structures of the new triterpenes were established by spectroscopic studies and from chemical evidence, and the inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 3-7 on VEGF-induced vascular permeability were examined in vivo in rats using the Miles assay. In addition, the inhibitory effect of 7 on VEGF-induced tube formation by HUVECs in vitro was investigated. © 2012 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.


PubMed | International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University Medical School and Wonkwang University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular medicine reports | Year: 2015

Euphorbia maculata (EM) is a traditionally used antidiarrheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant agent. However, the effects of EM on platelet activity remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the antiplatelet effect of various EM extract fractions on platelet aggregation in rats. The antiplatelet activity of the EM fractions on collagen or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)induced platelet aggregation was evaluated invitro and exvivo. ThromboxaneB2 (TXB2) formation, rattail bleeding time and coagulation time were also measured. Among the fractions, the chloroform fraction of EM (CFEM) significantly inhibited ADPinduced platelet aggregation invitro. Furthermore, oral administration of 50mg/kg CFEM to rats significantly reduced ADPinduced platelet aggregation without increasing the tail bleeding time or coagulation time. In addition, EM significantly inhibited the level of TXB2 formation in a dosedependent manner. These results suggest that CFEM exhibits antiplatelet activity, without causing bleeding, via the suppression of TXB2 formation. CFEM may be a type of food which has the potential for preventing cardiovascular disease.


Lee Y.M.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim J.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Kim C.-S.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | Jo K.,Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in the development of diabetic complications such as diabetic retinopathy. 5′-methoxybiphenyl-3,4,3′-triol (referred to as K24) was isolated using bioactivity-guided fractionation of Osteomeles schwerinae C. K. Schneid. and identified as a potent AGE inhibitor. To identify the protective effect of K24 on disruption of the blood-retinal barrier, AGE-RSA was intravitreally injected into rat eyes. K24 had an inhibitory effect on AGE-RSA-induced retinal vascular leakage by suppressing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreasing the loss of occludin. In addition, we examined whether K24 has a preventive effect against retinal pathogenic angiogenesis in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model. K24 significantly reduced the retinal non-perfused area and neovascular tufts in the OIR mice. These data indicate that K24 could serve as an innovative pharmaceutical agent to prevent blood-retinal barrier breakage and retinal pathogenic angiogenesis through an anti-VEGF mechanism. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


PubMed | International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute and Wonkwang University
Type: | Journal: Journal of ethnopharmacology | Year: 2016

Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Araliaceae) has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including diabetes. Processed ginseng named Black ginseng exhibits more potent biological activities than white and red ginseng. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of black ginseng extract (GBG05-FF) on hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice.Black ginseng was produced by a repeated steaming and drying process, subsequent extraction with 70% ethanol, filtration, and lyophilization. The effect of GBG05-FF on glucose uptake and related protein expression and phosphorylation were determined in C2C12 cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of GBG05-FF in STZ-induced diabetic mice.GBG05-FF significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes via AMPK, Sirt1 and PI3-K pathway. In addition, GBG05-FF improved the fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance in STZ-induced diabetic mice. GBG05-FF decreased blood parameters such as glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Quantitative RT-PCR assay revealed that in the STZ-induced diabetic mice treated with GBG05-FF, the expression of hepatic genes involved in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase)), glycogenolysis (liver glycogen phosphorylase (LGP)) and glycogenesis (glycogen synthase (GS)) was suppressed, while the expression of the genes involved in glucose uptake (glucose transporter (GLUT) 1, GLUT4) and -oxidation (acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1a (CPT1a), mitochondrial medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)) in muscle were increased. GBG05-FF delayed diabetes-associated muscle atrophy by activating mTOR. The major bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3(S), Rg3(R), Rg5, Rk1 and Rh4 were evaluated for glucose uptake effect in C2C12 myotubes; the data indicated that Rh4 significantly (p<0.05) increased glucose uptake.Collectively, the results suggested that GBG05-FF is a potentially useful agent for treatment of diabetes by increasing glucose uptake.


PubMed | International Ginseng and Herb Research Institute and Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular medicine reports | Year: 2015

In the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy (DR), advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are thought to have important roles. It is known that VEGF causes a breakdown of the bloodretinal barrier (BRB) and retinal neovascularization; however, how AGEs affect the retina has largely remained elusive. OSSC1EK19 is a novel phytochemical component of Osteomeles schwerinae. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of OSSC1EK19 on retinal vascular injury in AGEmodified rat serum albumin (AGE-RSA)-induced retinopathy. AGE-RSA-injected rat eyes were used investigate the protective effects of OSSC1EK19 on BRB breakdown. Intravitreal injection of OSSC1E-K19 prevented AGE-RSA-induced BRB breakdown and decreased retinal VEGF expression in retinal vessels. In addition, OSSC1E-K19 inhibited the loss of occludin, a significant tight junction protein. These results supported the potential therapeutic utility of OSSC1E-K19 for retinal vascular permeability diseases.

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