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Narula A.P.S.,International Flavors Fragrances Inc.
Chemistry and Biodiversity | Year: 2014

There is a constant need for developing new fragrance ingredients in the flavor and fragrance industry, as it allows perfumers to create unique and differentiating perfumes for fine as well as functional products. Among all the categories of notes used in perfume creation, amber notes are indispensible and ubiquitous in their presence in all perfumes. Not only amber notes impart high performance and substantivity to fragrances, but they are paramount in the development of classic and legendary fragrances. This article is based on the plenary lecture delivered at the flavor & fragrance 2013 conference of the German Chemical Society in Leipzig, Germany. The strategy, rationale, and the various synthetic approaches that led to the discovery of two new very powerful, woody, amber materials, Amber Xtreme® (1) and Trisamber® (2), are delineated. © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

Krause A.J.,University of Minnesota | Henson L.S.,International Flavors Fragrances Inc. | Reineccius G.A.,University of Minnesota
Flavour and Fragrance Journal | Year: 2011

A mechanical device was fabricated to simulate mastication of chewing gum; this device allowed us to perform a mass balance on the volatiles and non-volatiles added to chewing gum during simulated mastication. Model volatiles (ethyl butyrate, isoamyl acetate and limonene) released from the gum into the gas phase were quantified using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The chewing device was equipped to simulate salivation (saliva in) and swallowing (saliva out) using water as simulated saliva. The model compounds released into simulated saliva were extracted and quantified using gas chromatography. Sugar alcohols (sorbitol and xylitol) and glycerin were quantified using HPLC-MS. High-potency sweeteners (acesulfame-K, sucralose, rebaudioside A and sodium saccharin) were quantified using UPLC-MS. The model volatiles initially added to the chewing gum were distributed in two or three fractions: the masticated gum (43-84%); the simulated saliva (ethyl butyrate and isoamyl acetate were recovered from the water at 9-11% and 14-17%, respectively) and the gas phase (ethyl butyrate and isoamyl acetate were recovered from the gas phase at 7-10% and 29-40%, respectively). Limonene could not be detected in the simulated saliva, and >80% remained in the gum after mastication. Almost all (>90%) of the water-soluble polyols and high-potency sweeteners were extracted from the gum into the simulated saliva by mastication. Given the presented validation of the device, we feel the device could be used to evaluate and potentially screen and evaluate ingredients in chewing gum formulations. By using a device to circumvent the variability of human subjects, a more consistent and efficient throughput of samples could be achieved. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Servant G.,Senomyx Inc. | Tachdjian C.,Senomyx Inc. | Li X.,International Flavors Fragrances Inc. | Karanewsky D.S.,Senomyx Inc.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2011

A diet low in carbohydrates helps to reduce the amount of ingested calories and to maintain a healthy weight. With this in mind, food and beverage companies have reformulated a large number of their products, replacing sugar or high fructose corn syrup with several different types of zero-calorie sweeteners to decrease or even totally eliminate their caloric content. A challenge remains, however, with the level of acceptance of some of these products in the market-place. Many consumers believe that zero-calorie sweeteners simply do not taste like sugar. A recent breakthrough reveals that positive allosteric modulators of the human sweet taste receptor, small molecules that enhance the receptor activity and sweetness perception, could be more effective than other reported taste enhancers at reducing calories in consumer products without compromising on the true taste of sugar. A unique mechanism of action at the receptor level could explain the robust synergy achieved with these new modulators. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

International Flavors Fragrances Inc. | Date: 2011-12-21

The present invention is directed to the use of one or more rebaudioside C polymorphs, or stereoisomers thereof, to enhance the sweet taste of a flavoring, such as glucosylated steviol glycoside, rebaudioside A, ammoniated glycyrrhizin, neohespherdin dihydrochalcone or thaumatin.

Choi S.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Decker E.A.,University of Massachusetts Amherst | Henson L.,International Flavors Fragrances Inc. | Popplewell L.M.,International Flavors Fragrances Inc. | McClements D.J.,University of Massachusetts Amherst
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Citral is a flavour component that is widely used in the beverage, food, and fragrance industries. Citral chemically degrades over time in aqueous solutions due to acid catalysed and oxidative reactions, leading to loss of desirable flavour and the formation of off-flavours. We examined the influence of surfactant micelles (Tween 80) in the aqueous phase and reverse micelles (polyglycerol polyricinoleate, PGPR) in the oil phase on the oil-water partitioning and chemical degradation of citral in medium chain triglyceride oil-in-water emulsions. The percentage of citral in the aqueous phase of the emulsions increased with increasing Tween 80 concentration, which was attributed to its incorporation within surfactant micelles. The rate of citral degradation decreased as the Tween 80 concentration was increased from 1% to 5% w/w in both aqueous solutions and in emulsions, suggesting that citral was protected from degradation once it was incorporated into micelles. The presence of reverse micelles (5% or 10% w/w PGPR) in the oil droplets decreased the percentage of citral present within the aqueous phase of the emulsions, suggesting that citral was preferentially incorporated into the reverse micelles. In addition, the presence of reverse micelles increased the chemical stability of citral, possibly because a greater fraction remained within the oil droplets. These results show that micelle or reverse-micelle structures may be used to improve the chemical stability of citral in beverage emulsions. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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