International Environmental Management Services Ltd.

Waukesha, Wisconsin, United States

International Environmental Management Services Ltd.

Waukesha, Wisconsin, United States

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Thornton J.A.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | Thornton J.A.,Kobe University | Harding W.R.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | Harding W.R.,DH Consulting | And 11 more authors.
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2013

Eutrophication, or the enrichment of lakes and reservoirs with plant nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus, is an ongoing concern facing human societies around the world. Once thought to have been resolved using engineering approaches such as municipal wastewater treatment and storm water management, the problem of nutrient enrichment not only persists, but even continues to increase, being manifested in harmful algal blooms, limitations on access to safe drinking water supplies, and related concerns associated with fresh water in lakes and reservoirs. The continuing concern surrounding eutrophication fulfils the many attributes of a 'wicked' or complex problem facing society. This report reviews seriatim the ten attributes of a wicked problem, and the implications of these attributes for lake and reservoir management are discussed. Recognition of eutrophication as a wicked problem requires site-specific approaches, based on specific knowledge of individual water bodies, as well as an ongoing commitment to lake and reservoir management to respond to new manifestations of the problems of nutrient enrichment as they continue to be revealed over time. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Thornton J.A.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | Thornton J.A.,Texas State University | Thornton J.A.,Kobe University | Slawski T.M.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2015

Many lakes in Southeastern Wisconsin (the metropolitan-Milwaukee area) are gradually becoming increasingly “salty”. While these waterbodies would not be considered presently to be saline lakes, there has been a rapid increase in the chloride concentrations in most of these lakes over the last 30 years, with the lakes increasing from a mean chloride concentration of about 19 mg/L to over 100 mg/L in some cases. While ecological impacts can be expected when chloride values exceed 250 mg/L, the rate of increase presents a basis for concern, especially since the underlying geology of the region is based on limestone/dolomite which is deficient in chlorides. Thus, the origin of the chlorides is anthropogenic: human and industrial wastewaters (treatment of which has effected improvements in trophic status but has not affected other water-borne contaminants) and winter de-icing practices based upon large quantities of sodium chloride are major contributors to the increasing concentrations of chloride in the region’s waterways. Without taking remedial measures, the rate of salinization is expected to continue to increase, resulting, ultimately, in the alteration of the freshwater systems in the region. © 2015, Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Lin H.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | Thornton J.A.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | Thornton J.A.,Texas State University | Thornton J.A.,Kobe University | Shadrin N.,Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2015

This study proposes a Watershed-based Adaptive Knowledge System (WAKES) to consistently coordinate multiple stakeholders in developing sustainable partnerships for ecosystem management. WAKES is extended from the institutional mechanism of Payments for Improving Ecosystem Services at the Watershed-scale (PIES-W). PIES-W is designed relating to the governance of ecosystem services fl ows focused on a lake as a resource stock connecting its infl owing and outfl owing rivers within its watershed. It explicitly realizes the values of conservation services provided by private land managers and incorporates their activities into the public organizing framework for ecosystem management. It implicitly extends the “upstream-to-downstream” organizing perspective to a broader vision of viewing the ecosystems as comprised of both “watershed landscapes” and “marine landscapes”. Extended from PIES-W, WAKES specifies two corresponding feedback: Framework I and II. Framework I is a relationship matrix comprised of three input-output structures of primary governance factors intersecting three subsystems of a watershed with regard to ecosystem services and human stakeholders. Framework II is the Stakeholder-and-Information structure channeling five types of information among four stakeholder groups in order to enable the feedbacks mechanism of Framework I. WAKES identifies the rationales behind three fundamental information transformations, illustrated with the Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis and the Strategic Action Program of the Bermejo River Binational Basin. These include (1) translating scientific knowledge into public information within the Function-and-Service structure corresponding to the ecological subsystem, (2) incorporating public perceptions into political will within the Service- and- Value structure corresponding to the economic subsystem, and (3) integrating scientific knowledge, public perceptions and political will into management options within the Value-and-Stakeholder structure corresponding to the social subsystem. This study seeks to share a vision of social adaptation for a global sustainable future through developing a network to adopt contributions from and forming partnerships among all ecosystem stakeholders. © 2015, Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Breffle W.S.,Michigan Technological University | Eiswerth M.E.,University of Northern Colorado | Muralidharan D.,Michigan Technological University | Thornton J.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd.
Ecological Economics | Year: 2015

The preponderance of evidence from many studies is that less wealthy households are subjected to greater exposure per capita and in aggregate to air pollution, water pollution, and toxic wastes. It also is the case that the less wealthy are provided with a disproportionately low amount of other programs to enhance amenities provided by the natural environment, such as recreational resources and high-quality esthetic opportunities (both quality and quantity). However, to date, no study has quantified the scale of this effect on the less wealthy as compared to their more wealthy counterparts when it comes to policy choices made on the basis of benefits analysis. This study provides a new equity adjustment method to measure quantitatively the effect of this inequity in the case of public goods. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Lin H.,Kyoto University | Thornton J.A.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd. | Slawski T.M.,Southeast Fox River Partnership LLC
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2013

This study discusses some fundamental institutional rationales to support the participatory approach of integrated lake basin management (ILBM). Based on five propositions for institutional change embodied within evolutionary economic thinking, an institutional change pathway (ICP) framework is constructed composed of eight institutional factors and four socioeconomic constraints. By merging the ILBM governance themes with the ICP institutional factors and socioeconomic constraints, an ILBM-ICP matrix is developed. The ILBM-ICP matrix indicates ILBM has focused on institutional factors of (i) opportunities, (ii) choices and (iii) incentives, with lesser emphasis on (iv) competition, (v) investment and (vi) payoff. For a more balanced institutional foundation for ILBM, incorporation of the financial mechanism of payments for improving ecosystem services at the watershed scale (PIES-W) forms an effective complement to the ILBM concept. PIES-W features the rationale of coordinating human stakeholders' conservation services (CS) for improving ecosystem services with human stakeholders' needs for ES as a basis for survival. This study calls upon the political and scientific communities to merge their visions and coordinate their actions in leading institutional improvement of ILBM so as to contribute to sustainable ecosystem governance. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Thornton J.A.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd | Slawski T.M.,Southeast Fox River Partnership Inc | Olson E.,University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2013

The Wisconsin (USA) Lakes Partnership is a coalition of academic, advocacy and regulatory entities focused on ensuring effective conservation of the State's natural and water resources. This report summarizes a successful application of the Partnership concept through a case study describing the process that led to the development and implementation of a River Protection Plan for the Mukwonago River Watershed. In addition to the actions of individual landowners, a planning programme sponsored by special purpose units of government, funded in part by the State of Wisconsin and in part by non-governmental organizations, and conducted by a regional planning authority in partnership with local universities and governmental agencies led to the development of the Mukwonago River Watershed Protection Plan, the contents of which were validated and guided by stakeholders through a Watershed Team and ad hoc Advisory Group. The Watershed Team secured and provided in part the necessary financial support for the conduct of the planning programme, while the Advisory Group identified concerns and validated recommended responses to address the shared issues of concern. The resulting watershed protection plan sets forth a strategy for the maintenance and protection of the high-quality water resources of the Mukwonago River Basin. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Thornton J.A.,International Environmental Management Services Ltd.
Lakes and Reservoirs: Research and Management | Year: 2013

The State of Wisconsin (USA) has 15 000 natural lakes. Many of these lakes are managed by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources pursuant to their mandate as the State's natural resources conservation agency. This level of management is primarily focused on issuance of hunting and fishing licences, boating licences and administration of relevant State regulations. Supporting this governmental function is a network of stakeholders who are organized under the auspices of various statewide programmes, such as the Citizen Lake Monitoring Network, or formed into local community-based organizations. These organizations include special purpose units of government, principally public inland lake protection and rehabilitation districts, as well as private associations, some of which might be incorporated under Wisconsin law and/or granted federal non-profit status. This article describes the various organizational options open to lake stakeholders and outlines the types of activities in which they engage. Lessons learned through this active programme of stakeholder participation are used to illustrate the value of this range of organizations. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

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