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Mueang Nonthaburi, Thailand

Sang R.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Kioko E.,U.S. Army | Lutomiah J.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Warigia M.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

In December 2006, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was diagnosed in humans in Garissa Hospital, Kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. Entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of RVF virus (RVFV). Approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for RVFV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested positive for RVFV, including Aedes mcintoshi/circumluteolus (26 pools), Aedes ochraceus (23 pools), Mansonia uniformis (15 pools); Culexpoicilipes, Culex bitaeniorhynchus (3 pools each); Anopheles squamosus, Mansonia africana (2 pools each); Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes pembaensis (1 pool each). Positive Ae. pembaensis, Cx. univittatus, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus was a first time observation. Species composition, densities, and infection varied among districts supporting hypothesis that different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVFV in diverse ecologies, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source


Kosoy M.,Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Bai Y.,Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Sheff K.,Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | Morway C.,Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention | And 9 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

To determine the role of Bartonella species as causes of acute febrile illness in humans from Thailand, we used a novel strategy of co-cultivation of blood with eukaryotic cells and subsequent phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella-specific DNA products. Bartonella species were identified in 14 blood clots from febrile patients. Sequence analysis showed that more than one-half of the genotypes identified in human patients were similar or identical to homologous sequences identified in rodents from Asia and were closely related to B. elizabethae, B. rattimassiliensis, and B. tribocorum. The remaining genotypes belonged to B. henselae, B. vinsonii, and B. tamiae. Among the positive febrile patients, animal exposure was common: 36% reported owning either dogs or cats and 71% reported rat exposure during the 2 weeks before illness onset. The findings suggest that rodents are likely reservoirs for a substantial portion of cases of human Bartonella infections in Thailand. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source


Nguku P.M.,Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation | Sharif S.K.,Public Health and Sanitation | Mutonga D.,Ministry of Health | Amwayi S.,Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program FELTP | And 10 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

An outbreak of Rift Valley fever (RVF) occurred in Kenya during November 2006 through March 2007. We characterized the magnitude of the outbreak through disease surveillance and serosurveys, and investigated contributing factors to enhance strategies for forecasting to prevent or minimize the impact of future outbreaks. Of 700 suspected cases, 392 met probable or confirmed case definitions; demographic data were available for 340 (87%), including 90 (26.4%) deaths. Male cases were more likely to die than females, Case Fatality Rate Ratio 1.8 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.3-3.8). Serosurveys suggested an attack rate up to 13% of residents in heavily affected areas. Genetic sequencing showed high homology among viruses from this and earlier RVF outbreaks. Case areas were more likely than non-case areas to have soil types that retain surface moisture. The outbreak had a devastatingly high case-fatality rate for hospitalized patients. However, there were up to 180,000 infected mildly ill or asymptomatic people within highly affected areas. Soil type data may add specificity to climate-based forecasting models for RVF. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source


Levy J.W.,International Emerging Infections Program | Suntarattiwong P.,Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health | Simmerman J.M.,International Emerging Infections Program | Simmerman J.M.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 5 more authors.
Influenza and other Respiratory Viruses | Year: 2014

Within a hand-washing clinical trial, we evaluated factors associated with fomite contamination in households with an influenza-infected child. Influenza virus RNA contamination was higher in households with low absolute humidity and in control households, suggesting that hand washing reduces surface contamination. © 2013 The Authors. Source


Anyangu A.S.,Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation | Gould L.H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Sharif S.K.,Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation | Nguku P.M.,Ministry of Health | And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2010

A large Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak occurred in Kenya from December 2006 to March 2007. We conducted a study to define risk factors associated with infection and severe disease. A total of 861 individuals from 424 households were enrolled. Two hundred and two participants (23%) had serologic evidence of acute RVF infection. Of these, 52 (26%) had severe RVF disease characterized by hemorrhagic manifestations or death. Independent risk factors for acute RVF infection were consuming or handling products from sick animals (odds ratio [OR] = 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78-3.61, population attributable risk percentage [PAR%] = 19%) and being a herdsperson (OR 1.77,95% CI = 1.20-2.63, PAR% = 11%). Touching an aborted animal fetus was associated with severe RVF disease (OR = 3.83,95% CI = 1.68-9.07, PAR% = 14%). Consuming or handling products from sick animals was associated with death (OR = 3.67,95% CI = 1.07-12.64, PAR% = 47%). Exposures related to animal contact were associated with acute RVF infection, whereas exposures to mosquitoes were not independent risk factors. Copyright © 2010 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

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