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The International Diabetes Federation is a worldwide alliance of over 230 national diabetes associations in more than 160 countries, who have come together to enhance the lives of people with diabetes everywhere. The Federation is committed to raising global awareness of diabetes, promoting appropriate diabetes care and prevention, and encouraging activities towards finding a cure for the different types of diabetes. The Federation has been leading the global diabetes community since 1950. It is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.IDF is divided into seven regions, with the aim of strengthening the work of national diabetes associations and enhancing the collaboration between them. IDF’s national diabetes associations are divided into the following regions: Africa ,Europe ,Middle East and North Africa , North America and Caribbean ,South and Central America , South East Asia and Western Pacific .IDF’s working bodies bring together the most important stakeholders from the global diabetes community in a collaborative effort to set common goals and co-ordinate activities towards the attainment of these goals. These stakeholders include: people with diabetes and their families; professionals involved in diabetes healthcare and related fields; diabetes representative organizations, and partners from commercial organizations with concerns which align with the mission of the Federation. IDF is associated with the Department of Public Information of the United Nations and is in official relations with the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization.According to the latest IDF figures, there are currently 382 million people living with diabetes and the total is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Some 80% of people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries and almost half of people living with diabetes are undiagnosed. Wikipedia.

Sudhakaran C.,International Diabetes Federation
Diabetes technology & therapeutics

BACKGROUND: This study reports on the effectiveness of exenatide compared to insulin glargine or NPH insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, unable to achieve glycemic control with oral glucose-lowering therapies in a clinical care setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 47) whose glycemia was not controlled adequately with oral hypoglycemic agents at maximum recommended therapeutic doses were initiated on exenatide therapy. Age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched patients receiving insulin glargine (n = 54) or NPH insulin (n = 23) served as controls. Data analysis included glycated hemoglobin, fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, lipid profile, body weight, and the occurrence of hypoglycemia. RESULTS: A statistically significant reduction in glycated hemoglobin value was noted after initiating exenatide (pre-exenatide 9.7 +/- 1.4% vs. post-exenatide 8.7 +/- 1.5%; P < 0.05), which was comparable to values after insulin glargine (9.8 +/- 1.1% vs. 9.0 +/- 1.5%, respectively; P < 0.05) and NPH insulin (9.6 +/- 1.4% vs. 8.9 +/- 1.3%, respectively; P < 0.05). Exenatide therapy was associated with net weight loss (mean, 1.6 kg), but therapy with insulin glargine and NPH insulin was associated with weight gain (1.8 and 2.3 kg, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In a group of select Asian Indian type 2 diabetes patients with secondary failure to oral hypoglycemic agents seen at a diabetes center, exenatide treatment in combination with oral drug regimens resulted in significant lowering of glycated hemoglobin similar to insulin glargine or NPH insulin but with the additional benefit of weight loss, albeit a small amount. Source

Yisahak S.F.,Emory University | Beagley J.,International Diabetes Federation | Hambleton I.R.,University of the West Indies | Narayan K.M.V.,Emory University
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice

The North America and Caribbean (NAC) Region faces a high burden of diabetes. In 2013, the number of children (aged 0-14 years) with type 1 diabetes was 108,600, with 16.7 new cases diagnosed per 100,000 children. Furthermore, there were 36,755,500 individuals with diabetes (mostly type 2 diabetes) in adults (20-79 years), and an additional 44,277,700 individuals had impaired glucose tolerance. The age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes in adults was 9.6%; the second highest among the seven Regions of the International Diabetes Federation. This estimate is expected to grow to 9.9% by 2035. There was some heterogeneity in the estimates within the Region with the age-adjusted prevalence for the USA estimated at 9.2%, 7.9% for Canada, 12.6% for Mexico, and 9.6% for the Caribbean islands. Mortality due to diabetes in the NAC Region is not limited to older age groups, with 37.6% of deaths occurring in people under the age of 60. The economic impact was also enormous, with healthcare expenditure due to diabetes estimated at 263.2 billion USD for 2013 - the highest of all IDF Regions. Diabetes threatens the public health and economies of countries in the NAC Region, and efforts in prevention and management must be intensified in order to surmount this growing problem. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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The International Diabetes Federation has declared diabetes 'A Global Emergency' in urgent need of effective therapies. A recently published study suggests that generating healthy blood vessels in adipose tissue could provide help in normalizing metabolic balance in obese people who develop type 2 diabetes.

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New research by Sylvie Lesage, a Ph.D. scientist at Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital (CIUSSS- East Montreal) and associate research Professor at University of Montreal, just published in the prestigious international scientific journal Nature Genetics, has discovered that a common genetic defect in beta cells may underlie both known forms of diabetes. Worldwide, 400 million people suffer from diabetes, with rapid increases projected. Patients with diabetes mostly fall into one of two categories, type 1 diabetics, triggered by auto-immunity at a young age, and type 2 diabetics, caused by metabolic dysfunction of the liver. Despite being labeled a “lifestyle disease”, diabetes has a strong genetic basis. “Our research finds that genetics is critical for the survival of beta cells – the cells that make insulin'' says Sylvie Lesage, who is also a member of the Montreal Diabetes Research Center. ‘'Thanks to our genetic make-up, some of us have beta cells that are tough and robust, while others have beta cells that are fragile and can't handle stress. It is these people who develop diabetes, either type 1 or type 2, while others with tougher beta cells will remain healthy even in if they suffer from autoimmunity or metabolic dysfunction of the liver.” Diabetes is a hidden killer. One out of every 11 adults is suffering from the disease, yet half of them have not even been diagnosed. Diabetes is caused by the inability of the body to lower blood glucose, a process normally driven by insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), this is caused by the immune system killing off the beta cells that produce insulin. In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a metabolic dysfunction prevents insulin from working on the liver. In both cases, left untreated the extra glucose in the blood can cause blindness, cardiovascular disease, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy and death. In this study led by Adrian Liston, Ph.D., an international team of researchers investigated how genetic variation controls the development of diabetes. While most previous work has focused on the effect of genetics in altering the immune system (in T1D) and metabolic dysfunction of the liver (in T2D), this research found that genetics also affected the beta cells that produce insulin. Mice with fragile beta cells that were poor at repairing DNA damage would rapidly develop diabetes when those beta cells were challenged by cellular stress. Other mice, with robust beta cells that were good at repairing DNA damage, were able to stay non-diabetic for life, even when those islets were placed under severe cellular stress. The same pathways for beta cell survival and DNA damage repair were also found to be altered in diabetic patient samples, indicating that a genetic predisposition for fragile beta cells may underlie who develops diabetes. Current treatments for T2D rely on improving the metabolic response of the liver to insulin. These antidiabetic drugs, in conjunction with lifestyle interventions, can control the early stages of T2D by allowing insulin to function on the liver again. However during the late stages of T2D, the death of beta cells means that there is no longer any insulin being produced. At this stage, antidiabetic drugs and lifestyle interventions have poor efficacy, and medical complications arise. Lydia Makaroff, Ph.D., of the International Diabetes Federation, commented this ground breaking work: ‘'The health cost for diabetes currently exceeds US$600 billion worldwide, 12 % of the global health budget, and will only increase as diabetes becomes more common. Much of this health care burden is caused by late-stage type 2 diabetes, where we do not have effective treatments, so we desperately need new research into novel therapeutic approaches. This discovery dramatically improves our understanding of type 2 diabetes, which will enable the design of better strategies and medications for diabetes in the future”. Liston, leader of the Belgian arm of the research, sees new promise in these results, especially through the new animal models used which will enable scientists, for the first time, to test new antidiabetic drugs that focus on preserving beta cells.

Guariguata L.,International Diabetes Federation | Whiting D.R.,Directorate of Public Health | Hambleton I.,University of the West Indies | Beagley J.,International Diabetes Federation | And 2 more authors.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice

Introduction: Diabetes is a serious and increasing global health burden and estimates of prevalence are essential for appropriate allocation of resources and monitoring of trends. Methods: We conducted a literature search of studies reporting the age-specific prevalence for diabetes and used the Analytic Hierarchy Process to systematically select studies to generate estimates for 219 countries and territories. Estimates for countries without available source data were modelled from pooled estimates of countries that were similar in regard to geography, ethnicity, and economic development. Logistic regression was applied to generate smoothed age-specific prevalence estimates for adults 20-79 years which were then applied to population estimates for 2013 and 2035. Results: A total of 744 data sources were considered and 174 included, representing 130 countries. In 2013, 382 million people had diabetes; this number is expected to rise to 592 million by 2035. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries and these will experience the greatest increase in cases of diabetes over the next 22 years. Conclusion: The new estimates of diabetes in adults confirm the large burden of diabetes, especially in developing countries. Estimates will be updated annually including the most recent, high-quality data available. © 2013. Source

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