International Development Research Center

Ottawa, Canada

International Development Research Center

Ottawa, Canada
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Smith M.L.,International Development Research Center | Seward R.,International Development Research Center
First Monday | Year: 2017

Since the early 2000s, there has been an explosion in the usage of the term open, arguably stemming from the advent of networked technologies - including the Internet and mobile technologies. 'Openness' seems to be everywhere, and takes many forms: from open knowledge, open education, open data and open science, to open Internet, open medical records systems and open innovation. These applications of openness are having a profound, and sometimes transformative, effect on social, political and economic life. This explosion of the use of the term has led to multiple interpretations, ambiguities, and even misunderstandings, not to mention countless debates and disagreements over precise definitions. The paper "Fifty shades of open" by Pomerantz and Peek (2016) highlighted the increasing ambiguity and even confusion surrounding this term. This article builds on Pomerantz and Peek's attempt to disambiguate the term by offering an alternative understanding to openness - that of social praxis. More specifically, our framing can be broken down into three social processes: open production, open distribution, and open consumption. Each process shares two traits that make them open: you don't have to pay (free price), and anyone can participate (non-discrimination) in these processes. We argue that conceptualizing openness as social praxis offers several benefits. First, it provides a way out of a variety of problems that result from ambiguities and misunderstandings that emerge from the current multitude of uses of openness. Second, it provides a contextually sensitive understanding of openness that allows space for the many different ways openness is experienced - often very different from the way that more formal definitions conceptualize it. Third, it points us towards an approach to developing practice-specific theory that we believe helps us build generalizable knowledge on what works (or not), for whom, and in what contexts. © First Monday.

Bonita R.,University of Auckland | Magnusson R.,University of Sydney | Bovet P.,University of Lausanne | Zhao D.,Capital Medical University | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2013

Strong leadership from heads of state is needed to meet national commitments to the UN political declaration on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal). A simple, phased, national response to the political declaration is suggested, with three key steps: planning, implementation, and accountability. Planning entails mobilisation of a multisectoral response to develop and support the national action plan, and to build human, financial, and regulatory capacity for change. Implementation of a few priority and feasible cost-effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of NCDs will achieve the 25 by 25 goal and will need only few additional financial resources. Accountability incorporates three dimensions: monitoring of progress, reviewing of progress, and appropriate responses to accelerate progress. A national NCD commission or equivalent, which is independent of government, is needed to ensure that all relevant stakeholders are held accountable for the UN commitments to NCDs.

Major J.,Cornell University | Lehmann J.,Cornell University | Rondon M.,International Development Research Center | Rondon M.,The Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical Ciat | Goodale C.,Cornell University
Global Change Biology | Year: 2010

Black carbon (BC) is an important pool of the global C cycle, because it cycles much more slowly than others and may even be managed for C sequestration. Using stable isotope techniques, we investigated the fate of BC applied to a savanna Oxisol in Colombia at rates of 0, 11.6, 23.2 and 116.1 t BC ha-1, as well as its effect on non-BC soil organic C. During the rainy seasons of 2005 and 2006, soil respiration was measured using soda lime traps, particulate and dissolved organic C (POC and DOC) moving by saturated flow was sampled continuously at 0.15 and 0.3 m, and soil was sampled to 2.0 m. Black C was found below the application depth of 0-0.1 m in the 0.15-0.3 m depth interval, with migration rates of 52.4±14.5, 51.8±18.5 and 378.7±196.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1 (±SE) where 11.6, 23.2 and 116.1 t BC ha-1, respectively, had been applied. Over 2 years after application, 2.2% of BC applied at 23.2 t BC ha-1 was lost by respiration, and an even smaller fraction of 1% was mobilized by percolating water. Carbon from BC moved to a greater extent as DOC than POC. The largest flux of BC from the field (20-53% of applied BC) was not accounted for by our measurements and is assumed to have occurred by surface runoff during intense rain events. Black C caused a 189% increase in aboveground biomass production measured 5 months after application (2.4-4.5 t additional dry biomass ha-1 where BC was applied), and this resulted in greater amounts of non-BC being respired, leached and found in soil for the duration of the experiment. These increases can be quantitatively explained by estimates of greater belowground net primary productivity with BC addition. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jansons E.,International Development Research Center
Voluntas | Year: 2015

This research builds our understanding of emerging corporate and private Indian foundations through the lens of their founders—India’s new generation of high-net-worth business leaders. Based on over 45 interviews and drawing on existing literature, it explores the background of these individuals, their unique position as “hyperagents,” and the Indian context that shapes their foundations. Findings suggest that these philanthropists prefer operational foundation models, politically and socially “safe” sectors, carry over business tendencies, pursue social change through a driver or catalyst role, and hold preference for control at the cost of coordination between actors. These approaches are logical given the context but are not the ideal end-goal, rather a step toward advancing HNWI philanthropy in the country. This work will be of interest to those looking to engage with Indian philanthropists and foundations, and given the limited existing scholarship on Indian philanthropy, it contributes to the development of India-specific theories. © 2014, International Society for Third-Sector Research and The Johns Hopkins University.

Geneau R.,International Development Research Center | Hallen G.,International Development Research Center
AIDS | Year: 2012

A growing proportion of people living with HIV/AIDS also struggle to cope with one or several noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), particularly as they age. The two epidemics being intertwined, there is increasing recognition that that there should be closer advocacy, policy and programmatic links between HIV and NCDs. The objective of this paper is to discuss the development of a research agenda geared towards informing the design and implementation of programs and policies truly grounded in a co-benefits approach. Tackling the joint epidemics of HIV/AIDS and NCDs in Africa will require for research funders and private and foreign aid donors to be bold, visionary and to commit to long-term research investments in order to evaluate the effects of natural policy experiments and complex interventions. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Eshton B.,University of Dar es Salaam | Katima J.H.Y.,University of Dar es Salaam | Kituyi E.,International Development Research Center
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

This paper evaluates GHG emissions and energy balances (i.e. net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and net energy ratio (NER)) of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1tonne (t) of combusted jatropha biodiesel. The findings of the study provewrong the notion that biofuels are carbon neutral, thus can mitigate climate change. A net GHG equivalent emission of about 848kgt-1 was observed. The processes which accountsignificantly to GHG emissions are the end use of biodiesel (about 82%) followed by farming of jatropha for about 13%. Sensitivity analysis indicates that replacing diesel with biodiesel in irrigation of jatropha farms decreases the net GHG emissions by 7.7% while avoiding irrigation may reduce net GHG emissions by 12%. About 22.0GJ of energy is consumed to produce 1t of biodiesel. Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process (about 64.7%) followed by jatropha farming for about 30.4% of total energy. The NEV is 19.2GJt-1, indicating significant energy gain of jatropha biodiesel. The NREV is 23.1GJt-1 while NER is 2.3; the two values indicate that large amount of fossil energy is used to produce biodiesel. The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the bioenergy sector.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Adhikari B.,International Development Research Center | Boag G.,53 Smirle Ave
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability | Year: 2013

This paper reviews recent literature on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) to understand the conditions influencing the successful implementation of PES schemes and their associated outcomes over time. It highlights a number of important considerations in designing PES schemes such as household characteristics, land tenure arrangements, incentive structure, equity and gender issues, and the challenges involved in balancing environmental, economic and poverty reduction goals. In general, the literature shows that program effectiveness cannot be measured solely in terms of economic efficiency or ecosystem performance. Considerations around socio-economic, political and institutional contexts are just as relevant. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Adhikari B.,International Development Research Center | Agrawal A.,University of Michigan
Conservation and Society | Year: 2013

Market-based approaches to environmental management, such as payments for ecosystem services (PES), have attracted unprecedented attention during the past decade. In this article, we review 26 case studies on PES from 11 countries in Asia and Latin America to help improve the understanding of the factors affecting PES schemes at the local level. We assess outcomes of the PES interventions in relation to four outcomes: equity, participation, livelihood, and environmental sustainability. Although we consider economic efficiency of these schemes to be crucial for informing policy debates, assessing it was not under the scope of this review. Our analysis shows the importance of property rights and tenure security, transaction costs, household and community characteristics, effective communication about the intervention, and the availability of PES-related information with regard to the sustainability of ecosystem service markets. The review suggests that PES schemes could target improvements in more than one outcome dimension. Focusing on the above five areas can lead to the continued provision of ecosystem services and improvements of the well-being of local inhabitants.

Rodriguez F.S.,International Development Research Center
Science and Public Policy | Year: 2010

Observance of acceptable ethical behaviour is compulsory for good research, particularly when such research puts the well-being of humans at risk. Internationalization of clinical research in developing countries raises ethical concerns. Are the study subjects aware of, and sufficiently protected against, the inherent risks of drug testing? Public policy is called upon to minimize risks while increasing the opportunities for host countries to benefit from participation in clinical research. This paper discusses some minimum principles required for clinical trials to be ethical. Based on evidence from Mexico, the paper illustrates how factors such as: slow regulatory reforms, insufficient empowerment of regulatory agencies, and disconnection among agents increase the risks of unethical behaviour in clinical research. © Beech Tree Publishing 2010.

Charron D.F.,International Development Research Center
EcoHealth | Year: 2012

International research agendas are placing greater emphasis on the need for more sustainable development to achieve gains in global health. Research using ecosystem approaches to health, and the wider field of ecohealth, contribute to this goal, by addressing health in the context of inter-linked social and ecological systems. We review recent contributions to conceptual development of ecosystem approaches to health, with insights from their application in international development research. Various similar frameworks have emerged to apply the approach. Most predicate integration across disciplines and sectors, stakeholder participation, and an articulation of sustainability and equity to achieve relevant actions for change. Drawing on several frameworks and on case studies, a model process for application of ecosystem approaches is proposed, consisting of an iterative cycles of participatory study design, knowledge generation, intervention, and systematization of knowledge. The benefits of the research approach include innovations that improve health, evidence-based policies that reduce health risks; empowerment of marginalized groups through knowledge gained, and more effective engagement of decision makers. With improved tools to describe environmental and economic dimensions, and explicit strategies for scaling-up the use and application of research results, the field of ecohealth will help integrate both improved health and sustainability into the development agenda.

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