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Eshton B.,University of Dar es Salaam | Katima J.H.Y.,University of Dar es Salaam | Kituyi E.,International Development Research Center
Biomass and Bioenergy

This paper evaluates GHG emissions and energy balances (i.e. net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and net energy ratio (NER)) of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1tonne (t) of combusted jatropha biodiesel. The findings of the study provewrong the notion that biofuels are carbon neutral, thus can mitigate climate change. A net GHG equivalent emission of about 848kgt-1 was observed. The processes which accountsignificantly to GHG emissions are the end use of biodiesel (about 82%) followed by farming of jatropha for about 13%. Sensitivity analysis indicates that replacing diesel with biodiesel in irrigation of jatropha farms decreases the net GHG emissions by 7.7% while avoiding irrigation may reduce net GHG emissions by 12%. About 22.0GJ of energy is consumed to produce 1t of biodiesel. Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process (about 64.7%) followed by jatropha farming for about 30.4% of total energy. The NEV is 19.2GJt-1, indicating significant energy gain of jatropha biodiesel. The NREV is 23.1GJt-1 while NER is 2.3; the two values indicate that large amount of fossil energy is used to produce biodiesel. The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the bioenergy sector.© 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Major J.,Cornell University | Lehmann J.,Cornell University | Rondon M.,International Development Research Center | Rondon M.,The Centro Internacional Of Agricultura Tropical Ciat | Goodale C.,Cornell University
Global Change Biology

Black carbon (BC) is an important pool of the global C cycle, because it cycles much more slowly than others and may even be managed for C sequestration. Using stable isotope techniques, we investigated the fate of BC applied to a savanna Oxisol in Colombia at rates of 0, 11.6, 23.2 and 116.1 t BC ha-1, as well as its effect on non-BC soil organic C. During the rainy seasons of 2005 and 2006, soil respiration was measured using soda lime traps, particulate and dissolved organic C (POC and DOC) moving by saturated flow was sampled continuously at 0.15 and 0.3 m, and soil was sampled to 2.0 m. Black C was found below the application depth of 0-0.1 m in the 0.15-0.3 m depth interval, with migration rates of 52.4±14.5, 51.8±18.5 and 378.7±196.9 kg C ha-1 yr-1 (±SE) where 11.6, 23.2 and 116.1 t BC ha-1, respectively, had been applied. Over 2 years after application, 2.2% of BC applied at 23.2 t BC ha-1 was lost by respiration, and an even smaller fraction of 1% was mobilized by percolating water. Carbon from BC moved to a greater extent as DOC than POC. The largest flux of BC from the field (20-53% of applied BC) was not accounted for by our measurements and is assumed to have occurred by surface runoff during intense rain events. Black C caused a 189% increase in aboveground biomass production measured 5 months after application (2.4-4.5 t additional dry biomass ha-1 where BC was applied), and this resulted in greater amounts of non-BC being respired, leached and found in soil for the duration of the experiment. These increases can be quantitatively explained by estimates of greater belowground net primary productivity with BC addition. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Charron D.F.,International Development Research Center

International research agendas are placing greater emphasis on the need for more sustainable development to achieve gains in global health. Research using ecosystem approaches to health, and the wider field of ecohealth, contribute to this goal, by addressing health in the context of inter-linked social and ecological systems. We review recent contributions to conceptual development of ecosystem approaches to health, with insights from their application in international development research. Various similar frameworks have emerged to apply the approach. Most predicate integration across disciplines and sectors, stakeholder participation, and an articulation of sustainability and equity to achieve relevant actions for change. Drawing on several frameworks and on case studies, a model process for application of ecosystem approaches is proposed, consisting of an iterative cycles of participatory study design, knowledge generation, intervention, and systematization of knowledge. The benefits of the research approach include innovations that improve health, evidence-based policies that reduce health risks; empowerment of marginalized groups through knowledge gained, and more effective engagement of decision makers. With improved tools to describe environmental and economic dimensions, and explicit strategies for scaling-up the use and application of research results, the field of ecohealth will help integrate both improved health and sustainability into the development agenda. Source

Bonita R.,University of Auckland | Magnusson R.,University of Sydney | Bovet P.,University of Lausanne | Zhao D.,Capital Medical University | And 9 more authors.
The Lancet

Strong leadership from heads of state is needed to meet national commitments to the UN political declaration on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal). A simple, phased, national response to the political declaration is suggested, with three key steps: planning, implementation, and accountability. Planning entails mobilisation of a multisectoral response to develop and support the national action plan, and to build human, financial, and regulatory capacity for change. Implementation of a few priority and feasible cost-effective interventions for the prevention and treatment of NCDs will achieve the 25 by 25 goal and will need only few additional financial resources. Accountability incorporates three dimensions: monitoring of progress, reviewing of progress, and appropriate responses to accelerate progress. A national NCD commission or equivalent, which is independent of government, is needed to ensure that all relevant stakeholders are held accountable for the UN commitments to NCDs. Source

Lecours N.,International Development Research Center | Almeida G.E.G.,Alliance for the Control of Tobacco Use | Abdallah J.M.,Sokoine University of Agriculture | Novotny T.E.,San Diego State University
Tobacco Control

Objective To review the literature on environmental health impacts of tobacco farming and to summarise the findings and research gaps in this field. Methods A standard literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases for identification of peer-reviewed articles. The internet and organisational databases were also used to find other types of documents (eg, books and reports). The reference lists of identified relevant documents were reviewed to find additional sources. Results The selected studies documented many negative environmental impacts of tobacco production at the local level, often linking them with associated social and health problems. The common agricultural practices related to tobacco farming, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, lead to deforestation and soil degradation. Agrochemical pollution and deforestation in turn lead to ecological disruptions that cause a loss of ecosystem services, including land resources, biodiversity and food sources, which negatively impact human health. Multinational tobacco companies' policies and practices contribute to environmental problems related to tobacco leaf production. Conclusions Development and implementation of interventions against the negative environmental impacts of tobacco production worldwide are necessary to protect the health of farmers, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Transitioning these farmers out of tobacco production is ultimately the resolution to this environmental health problem. In order to inform policy, however, further research is needed to better quantify the health impacts of tobacco farming and evaluate the potential alternative livelihoods that may be possible for tobacco farmers globally. Source

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