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Bisaro A.,Global Climate Forum | Kirk M.,University of Marburg | Zdruli P.,CIHEAM Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari | Zimmermann W.,International Development Management
Land Degradation and Development | Year: 2014

Recent rapid changes in global scale drivers of desertification, land degradation and drought (DLDD) have two important consequences for drylands. First, changes in these drivers, for example in food and energy prices, make improving interventions in drylands more urgent because of their potential impacts. Second, these changes introduce new knowledge gaps regarding both the potential impacts on social-ecological dryland systems and the design of options to take advantage of opportunities. This paper identifies the most salient research needs in DLDD in drylands brought on by global drivers. The question was addressed through an iterative stakeholder consultative forum. First, relevant global scale drivers were identified through a literature review and preliminary consultation. Next, stakeholders and experts were further consulted to identify research priorities given rise to by these drivers. Identified research priorities were as follows: (i) assessing impacts of rising prices on DLDD in mixed market and subsistence production contexts; (ii) assessing options and limits of agricultural modernisation on fragile lands; (iii) developing methods for assessing land-use trade-offs and mapping productive lands; (iv) modelling and participatory methods for monitoring and evaluating soil carbon sequestration; (v) developing policy frameworks to regulate impacts of investment on the environment and local livelihoods; (vi) participatory modelling for regional and local adaptation planning; and (vii) valuation of non-market land degradation outcomes including biodiversity loss. Concluding, we call for a forward-looking interdisciplinary drylands research agenda with an increased emphasis on governance to address these priorities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Sieke M.A.,University of Cologne | Seifert R.W.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | Seifert R.W.,International Development Management | Thonemann U.W.,University of Cologne
Production and Operations Management | Year: 2012

Supply contracts are used to coordinate the activities of the supply chain partners. In many industries, service level-based supply contracts are commonly used. Under such a contract, a company agrees to achieve a certain service level and to pay a financial penalty if it misses it. The service level used in our study refers to the fraction of a manufacturer's demand filled by the supplier. We analyze two types of service level-based supply contracts that are designed by a manufacturer and offered to a supplier. The first type of contract is a flat penalty contract, under which the supplier pays a fixed penalty to the manufacturer in each period in which the contract service level is not achieved. The second type of contract is a unit penalty contract, under which a penalty is due for each unit delivered fewer than specified by the parameters of the contract. We show how the supplier responds to the contracts and how the contract parameters can be chosen, such that the supply chain is coordinated. We also derive structural results about optimal values of the contract parameters, provide numerical results, and connect our service level measures to traditional service level measures. The results of our analyses can be used by decision makers to design optimal service level contracts and to provide them with a solid foundation for contract negotiations. © 2012 Production and Operations Management Society. Source

Badir Y.F.,Asian Institute of Technology | Buchel B.,International Development Management | Tucci C.L.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
International Journal of Project Management | Year: 2012

New product development (NPD) in an alliance context crosses organizational boundaries and therefore makes team and leader empowerment and communication an ever more important topic for the successful accomplishment of NPD goals. We developed a conceptual model that addresses some key questions: Under what circumstances should the project team and leader be empowered? How much empowerment? And what effects does this have on communication and NPD performance?Using case study research, we developed a conceptual model portraying the impact of NPD project team and leader empowerment in the 'alliance focal company' (AFC - the lead company in the alliance) on the communication with a project's strategic partners, and the subsequent effects on project performance. Our model suggests that the efficiency of the development project (shortest, cheapest, and highest quality possible) is contingent upon how well the actual intensity level and the degree of media-richness of communication fit the required ones. Conversely, the actual intensity level and degree of media-richness of communication are enabled by a varying extent of team and leader empowerment, ranging from limited to significant. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Wang Y.,Tianjin Medical University | Yin Q.,International Development Management | Yu Q.,Tianjin Medical University | Zhang J.,Tianjin Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

Immunohistochemical markers are often used to classify breast cancer into subtypes that are biologically distinct and behave differently. The aim of this study was to estimate relapse for patients with the major subtypes of breast cancer as classified using immunohistochemical assay and to investigate the patterns of benefit from the therapies over the past years. The study population included primary, operable 2,118 breast cancer patients, all non-specific infiltrative ductal carcinoma, with the median age of 53.2 years. All patients underwent local and/or systemic treatments. The clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcomes were retrospectively reviewed. The expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and cytokeratin 5/6 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. All patients were classified into the following categories: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 overexpressing, basal-like, and unclassified subtypes. Ki-67 was detected in luminal A subtype. The median follow-up time was 67.9 months. Luminal A tumors had the lowest rate of relapse (12.7%, P<0.001), while luminal B, HER2 overexpression, and basal-like subtypes were associated with an increased risk of relapse (15.7, 19.1, 20.9%). Molecular subtypes retained independent prognostic significance (P<0.001). In luminal A subtype, adjunctive radiotherapy could decrease the risk of relapse (P = 0.005), Ki67 positive was a high-risk factor for relapse (P<0.001), and adjuvant chemotherapies could reduce the relapse for the patients with risk factors (P<0.001). Adjuvant hormone therapy was an effective treatment for ER-positive tumors (P<0.001). Molecular subtypes of breast cancer could robustly identify the risk of recurrence and were significant in therapeutic decision making. The model combined subtype and clinical pathology was a significant improvement. LuminalAtumors might represent two distinct subsets which demonstrated distinct prognosis and therapy response. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011. Source

Weinman J.,International Development Management
IEEE Cloud Computing | Year: 2015

The experience that users, such as customers and employees, have of online services is largely based on response time. Response time can be improved through a variety of cloud-related techniques with little or no marginal cost including front-end optimization, geographic dispersion, parallelism, and optimal anycast service node selection. © 2015 IEEE. Source

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