Meek M.E.,University of Ottawa |
Levy L.S.,Cranfield University |
Beck B.D.,Gradient Corporation |
Danzeisen R.,International Copper Association |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A: Current Issues | Year: 2010
This article addresses the content of the workshop, including a panel discussion relevant to delineation of a path forward in relation to risk assessment of essential metals. The state of the art of risk assessment and associated issues for essential metals are outlined initially, followed by brief illustration by the case studies considered at the workshop (i.e., copper, zinc, and manganese). Approaches for the future testing strategies of essential metals are discussed in terms of options to increase efficiency and accuracy of assessments. Subsequently, recommendations for pragmatic next steps to advance progress and facilitate uptake by the regulatory risk assessment community are presented.
Van Genderen E.,ZINC Inc |
Adams W.,Rio Tinto Alcan |
Dwyer R.,International Copper Association |
Garman E.,Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association |
Gorsuch J.,Copper Development Association Inc
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2015
The fate and biological effects of chemical mixtures in the environment are receiving increased attention from the scientific and regulatory communities. Understanding the behavior and toxicity of metal mixtures poses unique challenges for incorporating metal-specific concepts and approaches, such as bioavailability and metal speciation, in multiple-metal exposures. To avoid the use of oversimplified approaches to assess the toxicity of metal mixtures, a collaborative 2-yr research project and multistakeholder group workshop were conducted to examine and evaluate available higher-tiered chemical speciation-based metal mixtures modeling approaches. The Metal Mixture Modeling Evaluation project and workshop achieved 3 important objectives related to modeling and interpretation of biological effects of metal mixtures: 1) bioavailability models calibrated for single-metal exposures can be integrated to assess mixture scenarios; 2) the available modeling approaches perform consistently well for various metal combinations, organisms, and endpoints; and 3) several technical advancements have been identified that should be incorporated into speciation models and environmental risk assessments for metals. © 2015 SETAC.
Miller F.J.,Fred J. Miller and LLC |
Kaczmar S.W.,OBrien and Gere Engineers Inc. |
Danzeisen R.,International Copper Association |
Moss O.R.,Owen Moss Advisors
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2013
Workplace air is monitored for overall dust levels and for specific components of the dust to determine compliance with occupational and workplace standards established by regulatory bodies for worker health protection. Exposure monitoring studies were conducted by the International Copper Association (ICA) at various industrial facilities around the world working with copper. Individual cascade impactor stages were weighed to determine the total amount of dust collected on the stage, and then the amounts of soluble and insoluble copper and other metals on each stage were determined; speciation was not determined. Filter samples were also collected for scanning electron microscope analysis. Retrospectively, there was an interest in obtaining estimates of alveolar lung burdens of copper in workers engaged in tasks requiring different levels of exertion as reflected by their minute ventilation. However, mechanistic lung dosimetry models estimate alveolar lung burdens based on particle Stokés diameter. In order to use these dosimetry models the mass-based, aerodynamic diameter distribution (which was measured) had to be transformed into a distribution of Stokés diameters, requiring an estimation be made of individual particle density. This density value was estimated by using cascade impactor data together with scanning electron microscopy data from filter samples. The developed method was applied to ICA monitoring data sets and then the multiple path particle dosimetry (MPPD) model was used to determine the copper alveolar lung burdens for workers with different functional residual capacities engaged in activities requiring a range of minute ventilation levels. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved.
News Article | November 10, 2016
CIUDAD DE MÉXICO, 10 de noviembre de 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- La International Copper Association (ICA-Procobre) participa en la Conferencia de las Partes (COP22), que se lleva acabo del 7 al 18 de noviembre, en Marruecos. En 2013, ICA-Procobre se unió a organizaciones con ideas afines,...
Hofmann U.,Wieland Werke AG |
Riedle J.,Wieland Werke AG |
Altenberger I.,Wieland Werke AG |
Cote A.,SIRVE S.A |
Burwell M.,International Copper Association
Fatigue and Fracture of Engineering Materials and Structures | Year: 2015
Torsion experiments show that pure annealed copper is able to withstand very high plastic strain amplitudes when it is loaded cyclically with less than 30 cycles to failure. Under these ultra-low cycle fatigue conditions, the performance of copper is significantly better than that of the annealed steels A36 and AISI 304, which were also tested in this study for comparison. The dependence of fatigue life on strain range can be described by a power law. In the case of an initial overloading, fatigue life can be estimated using the Palmgren-Miner rule. The long low cycle fatigue life of copper is explained by a thermally activated softening mechanism which takes place while the material heats up as a result of the cyclically repeated plastic deformation. The softening is accompanied by a change in microstructure. The low cycle fatigue properties of copper can be utilized for designing hysteretic dampers for seismic protection. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Ltd.
Kaden D.,Free University of Berlin |
Bush A.I.,University of Melbourne |
Danzeisen R.,International Copper Association |
Bayer T.A.,University of Gottingen |
Multhaup G.,Free University of Berlin
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2011
Recent data from in vitro, animal, and human studies have shed new light on the positive roles of copper in many aspects of AD. Copper promotes the non-amyloidogenic processing of APP and thereby lowers the Aβ production in cell culture systems, and it increases lifetime and decreases soluble amyloid production in APP transgenic mice. In a clinical trial with Alzheimer patients, the decline of Aβ levels in CSF, which is a diagnostic marker, is diminished in the verum group (8mg copper/day), indicating a beneficial effect of the copper treatment. These observations are in line with the benefit of treatment with compounds aimed at normalizing metal levels in the brain, such as PBT2. The data reviewed here demonstrate that there is an apparent disturbance in metal homeostasis in AD. More research is urgently needed to understand how this disturbance can be addressed therapeutically. Copyright © 2011 Daniela Kaden et al.
Ayer N.,EarthShift Global LLC |
Martin S.,EarthShift |
Dwyer R.L.,International Copper Association |
Gace L.,International Copper Association |
Laurin L.,EarthShift Global LLC
Aquaculture | Year: 2016
The environmental impacts of culturing Atlantic salmon in copper-alloy mesh (CAM) net-pens were studied using infrastructure and operating data from a pilot study in Chile in 2012. The analysis included a comparative assessment of culturing fish in CAM net-pens relative to industry-average Chilean nylon net-pen systems in 2012, and an environmental hot-spot analysis of the CAM net-pen supply chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to quantify the environmental performance of both systems in compliance with the ISO 14040 and 14044 standards for LCA, including sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis to test the robustness of the methodology and key assumptions. Results of the study indicated that use of the CAM resulted in improvements in several key performance characteristics, including reductions in feed inputs, on-site energy use, application of antibiotics, and labor hours. These operating performance improvements resulted in reductions in life cycle impacts relative to conventional nylon net-pen systems for nearly all environmental indicators considered, including climate change, acidification, marine ecotoxicity, metal depletion, and cumulative energy demand. The reduced impacts for marine ecotoxicity and metal depletion were a result of lower copper leach rates for the CAM netting relative to nylon netting coated in antifouling paint, as well as the high recyclability of the CAM net material. The recyclability of the CAM nets could result in a more cyclical and sustainable use of copper in the aquaculture industry relative to the one-time use and permanent loss of copper used in anti-fouling paints for nylon nets. The International Copper Association (ICA) is continuing to collect life cycle inventory (LCI) data to further characterize the environmental performance of CAM net-pen systems in an effort to provide further quantitative evidence of the benefits of this emerging alternative to nylon net-pen systems. Statement of relevance: Manuscript presents potential benefits of a novel aquaculture technology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Liu S.-B.,International Copper Association
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2010
An analytical method of calculating the steady-state and transient temperature rises (T.R.s) for round cable bundles is proposed in this paper. The main feature of the proposed approach, which distinguishes it from the models published earlier, is that the cables in a bundle can be loaded with different currents and the heat-source density does not have to be uniform in all conductors. This paper also presents an experimental verification of the proposed model. It is also shown that the proposed method gives almost identical results with the IEC approach for a steady-state load and a uniform current density in all cables. © 2010 IEEE.
Shabtay Y.L.,Heat Transfer Technologies LLC |
Black J.R.H.,International Copper Association
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014
The low thermal conductivity of wax-based phase-change material has limited its application in latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems. This paper compares two ways to increase the thermal conductivity of wax by a factor of more than 100. The first involves embedding a modified copper tube/aluminum fin heat exchanger of the type typically used in room air conditioners in a container filled with wax-based phase change material. The second and more unconventional approach is to embed copper tube circuits into a high-conductivity graphite-wax composite. Both types of systems demonstrated excellent performance, however the prototype graphite-wax composite TES system offers the added advantages of leak-free operation and greater flexibility in the shape of the TES unit. This paper covers the design, performance and economics for using a TES unit to replace a conventional hot water storage tank in a heat pump water heater and a solar thermal water heater. TES unit optimization for a HPWH allowed for lower return temperature to the compressor, constant exit water temperature, faster charging time and reduced unit size by as much as 60% compared to a conventional water tank. TES unit optimization for a solar thermal application permits replacement of large water tanks with lighter weight TES units that can be placed on interior or exterior walls. Overall, this paper describes how optimized designs of thermal energy storage systems for domestic hot water delivery now in development are compact, have flexible form factor for applications in buildings where space is at a premium, deliver hot water at a constant output temperature, operate for a longer time for the same volume, or have increased efficiency over conventional systems. Some additional applications of copper heat exchangers embedded in PCM will also be mentioned, including air and ground source heat pump space heating and cooling in which the use of a compact TES unit offers higher COP due to condenser and evaporator temperature optimization.
Zhong Q.,South China University of Technology |
Huang W.,International Copper Association |
Tao S.,North China Electrical Power University |
Xiao X.,North China Electrical Power University
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2014
Power quality (PQ) issues cause a lot economic loss. It is very helpful for the governmental decisions of the PQ policies and supervisions to know the PQ loss from macroscopical aspects. This paper presents the procedure and some interesting findings of the survey of PQ cost of the customers in Shanghai during 2010-2011. The survey was carried out in two steps with 147 valid questionnaire samples among 18 sectors and 40 face to face interviews among 7 sectors. Based on the statistics of the answer of the respondents, there is a lot of information about PQ issues in Shanghai, such as the most frequent PQ events, the most PQ sensitive devices, the causes of PQ events, the effectiveness of the mitigation devices and so on. Finally, the total PQ loss of respondents were counted. By the linear fitting analysis, the PQ cost and annual PQ loss in Shanghai can be estimated. The PQ cost estimation is with high reference value for the government who is in charge of the policies of PQ issues and the customers who select the technical and economic strategies for PQ problems. © 2014 IEEE.