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Boelen C.,International Consultant | Woollard R.,University of British Columbia
Medical Teacher | Year: 2011

More than ever are we facing the challenge of providing evidence that what we do responds to priority health needs and challenges of the ones we intend to serve: patients, citizens, families, communities and the nation at large. Which are those health needs and challenges? Who defines them? How do medical schools organize themselves to address them through their education, research and service delivery functions? Principles of social accountability call for an explicit three-tier engagement: identification of current and prospective social needs and challenges, adaptation of school's programmes to meet them and verification that anticipated effects have benefited society. Measurement tools need to be designed and tested to steer development in this direction, particularly to establish a meaningful relationship between inputs, processes, outputs and impact on health. The Global Consensus on Social Accountability of Medical Schools provides a unique opportunity to foster collaborative research and development in an area of great significance for the future of medical education. © 2011 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved. Source


Fotso J.C.,International Consultant | Izugbara C.,African Population and Health Research Center | Saliku T.,Twaweza East Africa | Ochako R.,Population Services International
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: In spite of major gains in contraceptive prevalence over the last few decades, many women in most parts of the developing world who would like to delay or avoid pregnancy do not use any method of contraception. This paper seeks to: a) examine whether experiencing an unintended pregnancy is associated with future use of contraception controlling for a number factors including poverty at the household and community levels; and b) investigate the mechanisms through which experiencing an unintended pregnancy leads to uptake of contraception.Methods: Quantitative and qualitative data from a cross-sectional research project conducted in 2009/10 in two slum settlements and two non-slum settings of Nairobi, Kenya are used. The quantitative component of the project was based on a random sample of 1,259 women aged 15-49 years. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of unintended pregnancy on future contraceptive use. The qualitative component of the project successfully interviewed a total of 80 women randomly selected from survey participants who had reported having at least one unintended pregnancy.Results: Women whose last pregnancy was unintended were more likely to be using a modern method of contraception, compared to their peers whose last pregnancy was intended, especially among the wealthier group as shown in the interaction model. Among poor women, unintended pregnancy was not associated with subsequent use of contraception. The qualitative investigation with women who had an unplanned pregnancy reveals that experiencing an unintended pregnancy seems to have served as a " wake-up call" , resulting in greater attention to personal risks, including increased interest in pregnancy prevention. For some women, unintended pregnancy was a consequence of strong opposition by their partners to family planning, while others reported they started using contraceptives following their unintended pregnancy, but discontinued after experiencing side effects.Conclusion: This study provides quantitative and qualitative evidence that women who have had an unintended pregnancy are " ready for change" . Family planning programs may use the contacts with antenatal, delivery and post-delivery care system as an opportunity to identify women whose pregnancy is unplanned, and target them with information and services. © 2014 Fotso et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Bellaubi F.,University of Osnabruck | Visscher J.T.,International Consultant
Water International | Year: 2014

This paper explores through case studies the quality of water service delivery in four different water utilities in Kenya and Ghana. The research confirms that the utilities’ current performance indicators by themselves are insufficient to assess the access of users to good-quality water service delivery. The case studies show that low-income populations receive a poor quality of water service delivery. The paper concludes that benchmarking needs to be complemented with a more in-depth analysis of the water service delivery by water providers. © 2014, International Water Resources Association. Source


Silva D.P.,International Consultant | Quintero J.P.,Gobierno en linea
ACM International Conference Proceeding Series | Year: 2012

This paper describes the key factors for the development of a successful strategy for the e-government uptake in Colombia. Copyright 2012 ACM. Source


Manidural Manoharan David P.,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University | Vasantharaj David B.,International Consultant
Pestology | Year: 2013

Filth flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica) and the blue bottle fly (Chrysomyia megacephala), have of late become a serious problem on poultry farms in India. Inadequate management of manure moisture, indiscriminate use of adulticides as space sprays and of larvicides as food pre-mix leading to resistance, and the mixed nature of results from biocontrol agents are the probable reasons for fly abundance. Alternatively, eco-friendly behavioural manipulations of the fly populations have received much less attention in poultry and other livestock sector. This paper focuses on the potential of behavioural approaches in an integrated fly control strategy relying little on chemical pesticides. Source

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