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Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Stojadinovic A.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Stojadinovic A.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Stojadinovic A.,The United States Military Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

Peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM) is a frequent occurrence in the natural history of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although significant advances have been made in screening of CRC, similar progress has yet to be made in the early detection of PSM of colorectal cancer origin. The fact that advanced CRC can be confined to the peritoneal surface without distant dissemination forms the basis for aggressive multi-modality therapy consisting of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), and neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapy. Reported overall survival with complete CRS+HIPEC exceeds that of systemic therapy alone for the treatment of PSM from CRC, underscoring the advantage of this multi-modality therapeutic approach. Patients with limited peritoneal disease from CRC can undergo complete cytoreduction, which is associated with the best reported outcomes. As early or limited peritoneal carcinomatosis is undetectable by conventional imaging modalities, second look laparotomy is an important means to identify disease in high-risk patients at a stage most amenable to complete cytoreduction. This review focuses on the identification of patients at risk for PSM from CRC and discusses the role of second look laparotomy. © Ivyspring International Publisher. Source


Mazeh H.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Mizrahi I.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ilyayev N.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Halle D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Cancer | Year: 2013

The discovery of microRNA, a group of regulatory short RNA fragments, has added a new dimension to the diagnosis and management of neoplastic diseases. Differential expression of microRNA in a unique pattern in a wide range of tumor types enables researches to develop a microRNA- based assay for source identification of metastatic disease of unknown origin. This is just one example of many microRNA-based cancer diagnostic and prognostic assays in various phases of clinical research. Since colorectal cancer (CRC) is a phenotypic expression of multiple molecular pathways including chromosomal instability (CIN), micro-satellite instability (MIS) and CpG islands promoter hypermethylation (CIMP), there is no one-unique pattern of microRNA expression expected in this disease and indeed, there are multiple reports published, describing different patterns of microRNA expression in CRC. The scope of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive review of the scientific literature describing the dysregulation of and the potential role for microRNA in the management of CRC. A Pubmed search was conducted using the following MeSH terms, "microRNA" and "colorectal cancer". Of the 493 publications screened, there were 57 papers describing dysregulation of microRNA in CRC. ©Ivyspring International Publisher. Source


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Jamall I.S.,Theodor Billroth Academy | And 2 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Carcinogenesis is widely thought to originate from somatic mutations and an inhibition of growth suppressors, followed by cell proliferation, tissue invasion, and risk of metastasis. Fewer than 10% of all cancers are hereditary; the ratio in gastric (1%), colorectal (3-5%) and breast (8%) cancers is even less. Cancers caused by infection are thought to constitute some 15% of the non-hereditary cancers. Those remaining, 70 to 80%, are called " sporadic," because they are essentially of unknown etiology. We propose a new paradigm for the origin of the majority of cancers. Presentation of hypothesis: Our paradigm postulates that cancer originates following a sequence of events that include (1) a pathogenic stimulus (biological or chemical) followed by (2) chronic inflammation, from which develops (3) fibrosis with associated changes in the cellular microenvironment. From these changes a (4) pre-cancerous niche develops, which triggers the deployment of (5) a chronic stress escape strategy, and when this fails to resolve, (6) a transition of a normal cell to a cancer cell occurs. If we are correct, this paradigm would suggest that the majority of the findings in cancer genetics so far reported are either late events or are epiphenomena that occur after the appearance of the pre-cancerous niche.Testing the hypothesis: If, based on experimental and clinical findings presented here, this hypothesis is plausible, then the majority of findings in the genetics of cancer so far reported in the literature are late events or epiphenomena that could have occurred after the development of a PCN. Our model would make clear the need to establish preventive measures long before a cancer becomes clinically apparent. Future research should focus on the intermediate steps of our proposed sequence of events, which will enhance our understanding of the nature of carcinogenesis. Findings on inflammation and fibrosis would be given their warranted importance, with research in anticancer therapies focusing on suppressing the PCN state with very early intervention to detect and quantify any subclinical inflammatory change and to treat all levels of chronic inflammation and prevent fibrotic changes, and so avoid the transition from a normal cell to a cancer cell.Implication of the hypothesis: The paradigm proposed here, if proven, spells out a sequence of steps, one or more of which could be interdicted or modulated early in carcinogenesis to prevent or, at a minimum, slow down the progression of many cancers. © 2014 Brücher and Jamall; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Jamall I.S.,Theodor Billroth Academy | And 2 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2014

The delineation of key molecular pathways has enhanced our knowledge of the biology of tumor microenvironment, tumor dissemination, and carcinogenesis. The complexities of cell-cell communication and the possibilities for modulation provide new opportunities for treating cancers. Cells communicate by direct and indirect signaling. Direct cell-cell communication involves both, self-self-communication (intracrine and autocrine), and adjacent communication with nearby cells (juxtacrine), which themselves are regulated by distinct pathways. Indirect intercellular communication involves local communication over short distances (paracrine and synaptic signaling) or over large distances via hormones (endocrine). The essential components of cell-cell communication involve communication junctions (Connexins, Plasmodesmata, Ion Channels, Chemical Synapses, and Pannexins), occluding junctions (Tight Junctions), and anchoring junctions (Adherens, Desmosomes, Focal Adhesions, and Hemidesmosomes). The communication pathways pass through junctions at physical cell-cell attachments, and they go, as well, through the extracellular matrix (ECM) via the different transmembrane adhesion proteins (Cadherins and Integrins). We have here reviewed cell-cell communication involving (1) the components of junctions and their dynamic interplay with the other aspects of communication, including (2) the tumor microenvironment and carcinogenesis, (3) coupling and migration, (4) the underlying cell-cell and sub-cellular communication mechanisms (signaling) of anticancer treatments, and finally, (5) aspects of recent research on cell-cell communication. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source


Brucher B.L.D.M.,Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,International Consortium of Research Excellence of the Theodor Billroth Academy | Brucher B.L.D.M.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Lyman G.,Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center | And 27 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Since the " War on Cancer" was declared in 1971, the United States alone has expended some $300 billion on research, with a heavy focus on the role of genomics in anticancer therapy. Voluminous data have been collected and analyzed. However, in hindsight, any achievements made have not been realized in clinical practice in terms of overall survival or quality of life extended. This might be justified because cancer is not one disease but a conglomeration of multiple diseases, with widespread heterogeneity even within a single tumor type.Discussion: Only a few types of cancer have been described that are associated with one major signaling pathway. This enabled the initial successful deployment of targeted therapy for such cancers. However, soon after this targeted approach was initiated, it was subverted as cancer cells learned and reacted to the initial treatments, oftentimes rendering the treatment less effective or even completely ineffective. During the past 30 plus years, the cancer classification used had, as its primary aim, the facilitation of communication and the exchange of information amongst those caring for cancer patients with the end goal of establishing a standardized approach for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. This approach should be modified based on the recent research to affect a change from a service-based to an outcome-based approach. The vision of achieving long-term control and/or eradicating or curing cancer is far from being realized, but not impossible. In order to meet the challenges in getting there, any newly proposed anticancer strategy must integrate a personalized treatment outcome approach. This concept is predicated on tumor- and patient-associated variables, combined with an individualized response assessment strategy for therapy modification as suggested by the patient's own results. As combined strategies may be outcome-orientated and integrate tumor-, patient- as well as cancer-preventive variables, this approach is likely to result in an optimized anticancer strategy.Summary: Herein, we introduce such an anticancer strategy for all cancer patients, experts, and organizations: Imagine a World without Cancer. © 2014 Brücher et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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