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Kulshreshtha S.,University of Rajasthan | Mathur N.,University of Rajasthan | Bhatnagar P.,International College for Girls
Toxicology and Industrial Health | Year: 2011

Generally, handmade paper industries are considered as eco-friendly industries. These industries are known to use vegetable dyes which are thought to be safe and non-toxic. However, cardboard industries are considered as pollution-causing industries. The present study focuses on the genotoxic assessment of handmade paper and cardboard industry's effluent by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 strains. On mutagenicity analysis, effluents of both industries were found to be mutagenic with either one strain of Salmonella typhimurium or with both. Besides this, no significant difference was observed in effluent of both small-scale and large-scale handmade paper industries. Moreover, mutagenic compounds reach the nearby water body i.e. Amani Shah Drainage through connecting drain. Discharging of untreated effluent not only deteriorates the water quality but also reaches the food chain when used for irrigating nearby fields. Workers of these industries may suffer various health hazards when they are exposed to mutagenic effluent without having any information about it. Hence, discharging of effluents should thus be restricted or the workers while handling mutagenic substances should at least take proper precautions. © The Author(s) 2011. Source

Kulshreshtha S.,Amity University | Mathur N.,University of Rajasthan | Bhatnagar P.,International College for Girls
IIOAB Journal | Year: 2011

The possibility of utilizing handmade paper and cardboard industrial sludges in the production of edible mushrooms involves risk of introducing toxic substances into the human food chain. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic assessment of P. florida (Pleurotus florida) cultivated on these industrial sludges and their combination with wheat straw was done by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA100. Interestingly, P. florida carpophores, cultivated on wheat straw did not show either frameshift or basepair mutagenicity as revealed by mutagenicity ratio (<2) and mean number of revertants which was found to be 81.3 and 93.4 revertants per plate in the absence of S9 mix. However, this number was found to be increased to 112.1 and 226.3 revertants with S9 mix. P. florida cultivated on waste and its combination showed increase in number of revertants (123.4-170.1 revertants with TA 100 and 79.5-84.1 revertants with TA 98) in the absence of S9 mix over control. Further, increase in number of revertants (229.0-247.3 with TA 100 and 100.3-129.1 with TA 98) was observed on adding S9 mix with both strains S. typhymurium but still mutagenicity ratio was found to be below 2. Hence, these mushrooms were not found to be genotoxic. This mushroom cultivation technique, will not only provide proteinaceous food but also help in reducing industrial wastes. Besides, these can serve as very good source of income for the poor workers working in these industries that can collect the waste from the industries and use it for P. florida cultivation. ©IIOAB-India. Source

Sharma P.,University of Rajasthan | Kumar M.,University of Rajasthan | Mathur N.,University of Rajasthan | Singh A.,University of Rajasthan | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Health care waste includes all the waste generated by health care establishments, research facilities, and laboratories. This constitutes a variety of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, radionuclides, solvents, and disinfectants. Recently, scientists and environmentalists have discovered that wastewater produced by hospitals possesses toxic properties due to various toxic chemicals and pharmaceuticals capable of causing environmental impacts and even lethal effects to organisms in aquatic ecosystems. Many of these compounds resist normal wastewater treatment and end up in surface waters. Besides aquatic organisms, humans can be exposed through drinking water produced from contaminated surface water. Indeed, some of the substances found in wastewaters are genotoxic and are suspected to be potential contributors to certain cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of wastewaters from two hospitals and three clinical diagnostic centers located in Jaipur (Rajasthan State), India using the prokaryotic Salmonella mutagenicity assay (Ames assay) and the eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae respiration inhibition assay. In the Ames assay, untreated wastewaters from both of the health care sectors resulted in significantly increased numbers of revertant colonies up to 1,000-4,050 as measured by the Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains (with and without metabolic activation) after exposure to undiluted samples, which indicated the highly genotoxic nature of these wastewaters. Furthermore, both hospital and diagnostic samples were found to be highly cytotoxic. Effective concentrations at which 20 % (EC20) and 50 % (EC50) inhibition of the respiration rate of the cells occurred ranged between ∼0.00 and 0.52 % and between 0.005 and 41.30 % (calculated with the help of the MS excel software XLSTAT 2012.1.01; Addinsoft), respectively, as determined by the S. cerevisiae assay. The results indicated that hospital wastewaters contain genotoxic and cytotoxic components. In addition, diagnostic centers also represent small but significant sources of genotoxic and cytotoxic wastes. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Kulshreshtha S.,University of Rajasthan | Mathur N.,University of Rajasthan | Bhatnagar P.,International College for Girls | Jain B.L.,University of Rajasthan
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2010

Handmade paper and cardboard industries are involved in processing of cellulosic and ligno-cellulosic substances for making paper by hand or simple machinery. In the present study, solid sludge and effluent of both cardboard and handmade paper industries was collected for developing a mushroom cultivation technique to acheve zero waste discharges. Findings of present research work reveals that when 50% paper industries waste is used by mixing with 50% (w/w) wheat straw, significant increase (96.38%) in biological efficiency over control of wheat straw was observed. Further, cultivated basidiocarps showed normal morphology of stipe and pileus. Cross section of lamellae did not show any abnormalityin the attachmentofbasidiospores, hymenal trama and basidium. No toxicity was found when fruiting bodies were tested chemically. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India). Source

Mehta R.,International College for Girls
Colourage | Year: 2010

Many unconventional methods and techniques are tried in wet processing of textile material, very often to explore eco-friehdly, alternative methods. Plasma technique is poised to change the concept of textile wet processing. Plasma technology is a surface-sensitive method that allows selective modification in the nm-range. "Thus any ionized gas that is composed of nearly equal numbers of negative and positive ions is called plasma" The second significant benefit that plasma based textile manufacturing offer is development of new fabric treatment with a desired attribute that cannot be achieved by other means. Plasma modification of textiles saves large quantity of water, chemicals and electrical energy, which is made possible since the plasma process does not produce large volume of waste or toxic by products. It improves the surface property of textile material without changing the bulk properties. By introducing energy into a gas, quasi natural plasma can be generated consisting of natural particles, electrically charged particles and highly reactive radicals plasma processing methods have been explored in improving the preparatory process in spinning, fabric preparation, dyeing, and finishing of cotton, wool, silk and most of the man made fibers. Source

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