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Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Aklilu A.,Arba Minch University | Kahase D.,Health Science University | Dessalegn M.,Amsalu Higher Clinic | Tarekegn N.,Pawi General Hospital | And 6 more authors.
BMC Research Notes

Background: Food contamination may occur at any point during its journey through production, processing, distribution, and preparation. The risk of food getting contaminated depends largely on the health status of the food handlers, their personal hygiene, knowledge and practice of food hygiene. Food borne diseases are a public health problem in developed and developing countries like Ethiopia. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among food handlers in Addis Ababa student's cafeteria from January to May 2013. Structured questionnaire was used to collect socio demographic data and associated risk factors. Stool specimens were examined for bacteria and intestinal parasites following standard procedures. Biochemical tests were done to identify the species of bacterial isolates. Sensitivity testing was done using Kirby- Baur disk diffusion method. Result: A total of 172 food handlers were enrolled in the study. The majority of study participants were females 134 (77.9%). About 78 (45.3%) of food handlers were found to be positive for different intestinal parasites with the most abundant parasite of Entameoba histolytica/dispar 68 (70.8%) followed by Giardia lamblia 18 (18.8%), Taenia species 5 (5.2%), Ascaris lumbricoides 2 (2.1%), hookworm 2 (2.1%) and Trichuris trichiura 1 (1.1%). Stool cultures revealed 3.5% of Salmonella isolates (Sero-grouping on Salmonella isolate was not done), while Shigella species was not isolated from any of the stool samples obtained from Food handlers. All isolates of Salmonella were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin but resistant to ampicillin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. Conclusion: The present study revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasite in asymptomatic (apparently health) food handlers. Such infected food handlers can contaminate food, drinks and could serve as source of infection to consumers via food chain. © 2015 Aklilu et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Tran A.,University of Washington | Gelaye B.,University of Washington | Girma B.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | Lemma S.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Hypertension

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria among working East African adults. Design. This cross-sectional study of 1,935 individuals (1,171 men and 764 women) was conducted among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in accordance with the STEPwise approach of the World Health Organization. Results. According to ATP III and IDF definitions, the overall prevalence of MetS was 12.5% and 17.9%, respectively. Using ATP III criteria, the prevalence of MetS was 10.0% in men and 16.2% in women. Application of the IDF criteria resulted in a MetS prevalence of 14.0% in men and 24.0% in women. The most common MetS components among women were reduced high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) (23.2%) and abdominal obesity (19.6%); whilst reduced HDL-C concentrations (23.4%) and high blood pressure (21.8%) were most common among men. Conclusion. MetS and its individual components are prevalent among an apparently healthy working population in Ethiopia. These findings indicate the need for evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs; and more robust efforts directed towards the screening, diagnosis and management of MetS and its components among Ethiopian adults. © 2011 A. Tran et al. Source

Wai W.S.,University of Washington | Dhami R.S.,University of Washington | Gelaye B.,University of Washington | Girma B.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | And 5 more authors.

We sought to determine which measures of adiposity can predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and to evaluate the extent to which overall and abdominal adiposity are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors among working adults in Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,853 individuals (1,125 men, 728 women) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization STEPwise approach was used to collect sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples among study subjects. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and lipid concentrations were measured using standard approaches. Spearman's rank correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and logistic regression were employed to determine the association and predictive ability (with respect to CVD risk factors) of four measures of adiposity: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Overall, FBG is best associated with WHtR in men and WC in women. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) is most strongly associated with BMI in men, but with WC in women. Compared to those with low BMI and low WC, the risk of having CVD is the highest for those with high BMI and high WC and those with high WC and low BMI. Review of ROC curves indicated that WC is the best predictor of CVD risk among study subjects. Findings from our study underscore the feasibility and face validity of using simple measures of central and overall adiposity in identifying CVD risk in resource-poor settings. © 2011 The Obesity Society. Source

Gelaye B.,University of Washington | Bekele T.,International Clinical Laboratories | Khali A.,International Clinical Laboratories | Haddis Y.,International Clinical Laboratories | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Laboratory

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate reference intervals for complete blood cell count parameters among apparently healthy 1,807 adults from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Blood specimens were collected from each participant using standard procedures. The collected aliquots were processed according to standard operating procedures to determine participants' complete blood counts. Non-parametric methods were employed to calculate the reference intervals and 90 % confidence intervals for complete blood counts. Results: Overall the results show that reference ranges for women are lower than men. The white blood cell count, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil reference values appear to be lower than values reported elsewhere. Conclusions: Our study is the first comprehensive study on reference intervals of complete blood count among apparently healthy adults in Ethiopia. Future studies that assess other hematological parameters and studies that assess reference values for African pediatric populations are warranted. Source

Nebeck K.,University of Washington | Gelaye B.,University of Washington | Gelaye B.,Harvard University | Lemma S.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health | And 6 more authors.
Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews

Aims: To examine associations between hematological parameters (i.e., hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet counts, red blood cell (RBC), and white blood cell (WBC) counts) and components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among working adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: Participants were 1868 (1131 men and 737 women) working Ethiopian adults. MetS was classified according to the International Diabetes Federation criterion. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of MetS were calculated using logistic regression procedures. Results: Hematologic parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, and RBC) were positively associated with MetS components (Ptrend < 0.05). In both men and women, white blood cell (WBC) counts were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (P < 0.05). RBC counts were associated with diastolic blood pressure in men (P < 0.05) and women (P < 0.001). Men in the third quartile of hemoglobin concentrations had 2-fold increased odds (OR = 1.99; 95% CI) of MetS compared with the lowest reference quartile (P trend = 0.031) while women in the fourth hemoglobin quartile had 2.37-fold increased odds of having MetS compared with the reference group (Ptrend = 0.003). Both men and women in the fourth quartiles of RBC counts had 2.26-fold and 3.44-fold increased odds of MetS (P = 0.002 in men, P < 0.001 in women). Among women, those in the fourth quartiles of hematocrit and platelet counts had 2.53-fold and 2.01-fold increased odds of MetS as compared with those in the reference group (Ptrend = 0.004 and 0.065 respectively). Conclusion: Our study findings provide evidence in support of using hematological markers for early detection of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. © 2012 Diabetes India. Source

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