Kamirenjaku, Japan

International Christian University is a non-denominational private university located in Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan. Commonly known as ICU , the university was founded in 1949. ICU offers 32 majors in undergraduate program as the liberal arts college in Japan. Wikipedia.

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Suzuki N.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Fujiki M.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology | Kimpinde-Kalunga R.,International Christian University | Koe J.R.,International Christian University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

To elucidate the factors involved in the chiroptical properties of polymer aggregates composed of helical building blocks, a series of rigid rod helical poly[alkyl-(S)-2-methylbutylsilane]s (achiral alkyl side chains = ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl) have been investigated. It was found that the chiroptical sign in the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the polysilane aggregates depends on the achiral side chain length and cosolvent fraction. Concerning the achiral side chains, the n-propyl group was of a critical length for solvent-dependent chiroptical inversion on aggregation. This unique side chain length-dependent chiroptical inversion was theoretically predictable by using the novel approach of combining the cholesteric hard-core model and exciton chirality method. The latter was also investigated theoretically by Gaussian 03 (TD-DFT, B3LYP, 6-31G(d) basis set) calculations applied to two spatially arranged helical Si-Si bonded decamer models. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Munakata A.,Miyagi University of Education | Kobayashi M.,International Christian University
General and Comparative Endocrinology | Year: 2010

Sexual behavior is one of the most profound events during the life cycle of animals that reproduce sexually. After completion of gonadal development that is mediated by various hormones, oviparous teleosts perform a suite of behaviors, often termed as spawning behavior. This is particularly important for teleosts that have their gametes fertilized externally as the behavior patterns ensures the close proximity of both sexes for gamete release, fusion and ultimately the production of offspring. As in other vertebrates, sexual behavior of fish is also under the control of hormones. Testicular androgen is a requirement for male sexual behavior to occur in most fish species that have been studied. Unlike tetrapods, however, ovarian estrogen does not appear to be essential for the occurrence of female sexual behavior for fish that have their gametes fertilized externally. Prostaglandins produced in the ovary after ovulation act as a trigger in some teleosts to induce female sexual behavior. Potentiating effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain on sexual behavior are reported in some species. Under endocrine regulation, male and female fish exhibit gender-typical behavior during spawning, but in some fish species there is also some plasticity in their sexual behavior. Sex changing fish can perform both male-typical and female-typical sexual behaviors during their lifetime and this sexual plasticity can also be observed in non-sex changing fish when undergoing hormonal treatment. Although the neuroanatomical basis is not clear in fish, results of field and laboratory observations suggest that some teleosts possess a sexually bipotential brain which can regulate two types of behaviors unlike most other vertebrates which have a discrete sex differentiation of their brain and can only perform gender-typical sexual behavior. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Ishimaru Y.,International Christian University | Ishimaru Y.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics | Wanajo S.,RIKEN | Prantzos N.,CNRS Paris Institute of Astrophysics
Astrophysical Journal Letters | Year: 2015

Recent hydrodynamical and nucleosynthesis studies have suggested binary mergers (NSMs) of double neutron star (and black-hole-neutron-star) systems as major sites of r-process elements in the Galaxy. It has been pointed out, however, that the estimated long lifetimes of neutron star binaries are in conflict with the presence of r-process-enhanced halo stars at metallicities as low as [Fe/H] ∼ -3. To resolve this problem, we examine the role of NSMs in the early Galactic chemical evolution with the assumption that the Galactic halo was formed from merging sub-halos. We present simple models for the chemical evolution of sub-halos with total final stellar masses between and 104 M and 2 × 108 M. The typical lifetimes of compact binaries are assumed to be 100 Myr (for 95% of their population) and 1 Myr (for 5%), according to recent binary population synthesis studies. The resulting metallicities of sub-halos and their ensemble are consistent with the observed mass-metallicity relation of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group and the metallicity distribution of the Galactic halo, respectively. We find that the r-process abundance ratios [r/Fe] start increasing at [Fe/H] ≤ -3 if the star formation efficiencies are smaller for less-massive sub-halos. In addition, sub-solar [r/Fe] values (observed as [Ba/Fe] ∼ -1.5 for [Fe/H] < -3) are explained by the contribution from short-lived (∼1 Myr) binaries. Our results indicate that NSMs may have contributed substantially to the r-process element abundances throughout the history of the Galaxy. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.

Imaoka T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kitazawa H.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Chun W.-J.,International Christian University | Omura S.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2013

A relationship between the size of metal particles and their catalytic activity has been established over a nanometer scale (2-10 nm). However, application on a subnanometer scale (0.5-2 nm) is difficult, a possible reason being that the activity no longer relies on the size but rather the geometric structure as a cluster (or superatomic) compound. We now report that the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) significantly increased when only one atom was removed from a magic number cluster composed of 13-platinum atoms (Pt13). The synthesis with an atomic-level precision was successfully achieved by using a dendrimer ligand as the macromolecular template strictly defining the number of metal atoms. It was quite surprising that the Pt12 cluster exhibited more than 2-fold catalytic activity compared with that of the Pt13 cluster. ESI-TOF-mass and EXAFS analyses provided information about the structures. These analyses suggested that the Pt12 has a deformed coordination, while the Pt13 has a well-known icosahedral atomic coordination as part of the stable cluster series. Theoretical analyses based on density functional theory (DFT) also supported this idea. The present results suggest potential activity of the metastable clusters although they have been "missing" species in conventional statistical synthesis. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

Hirashima D.S.,International Christian University
Journal of the Physical Society of Japan | Year: 2016

Conditions for the existence of a completely flat band in a crystal of finite thickness are clarified. Furthermore, the condition for the localization of the flat band states near the surfaces is also discussed. It is also found that a completely flat band can appear in a crystal where a lattice point has multiple orbital states. In addition to the known results for honeycomb and diamond lattices, a localized completely flat band is found in a crystal of the wurtzite structure of finite thickness. A completely flat band is also found in many other crystals, but it is extended in the direction perpendicular to the surface. © 2016 The Physical Society of Japan.

Okamura H.,International Christian University
Optics Letters | Year: 2010

We propose an external-cavity laser diode that uses an electromagnetically actuated collimating lens for wavelength tuning. Because the wavelength in the grating equation is highly sensitive to the incident angle, a slight (~ 1 μm) transverse displacement of the collimating lens induces a wavelength shift of ~1nm.We experimentally demonstrate a single-mode, stable, reproducible, and cw tuning over a range of 8nm. The wavelength is proportional to the current applied to the lens actuator, and no hysteresis is observed within the experimental error. By changing the current, we achieve fast and reproducible wavelength switching. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

Montgomery H.,International Christian University | Weiss J.,University of Bradford
World Development | Year: 2011

The current emphasis in the microfinance industry is a shift from donor-funded to commercially sustainable operations. This article evaluates the impact of access to microloans from the Khushhali Bank-Pakistan's first and largest microfinance bank which operates on commercial principles. Using primary data from a detailed household survey of nearly 3,000 borrower and non-borrower households, a difference in difference approach is used to test for the impact of access to loans. Once the results are disaggregated between rural and urban areas there is a positive impact in rural areas on food expenditure and on some social indicators such as the health of children and female empowerment. These impacts are observed even in very poor households. These findings suggest that commercially-oriented microfinance and the millennium development goals are not incompatible, given a supportive environment. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Hitzer E.,International Christian University
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

Conformal geometric algebra is preferred in many applications. Clifford Fourier transforms (CFT) allow holistic signal processing of (multi) vector fields, different from marginal (channel wise) processing: Flow fields, color fields, electro-magnetic fields,. The Clifford algebra sets (manifolds) of -1 lead to continuous manifolds of CFTs. A frequently asked question is: What does a Clifford Fourier transform of conformal geometric algebra look like? We try to give a first answer. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

Yamaguchi T.,International Christian University
Food Policy | Year: 2014

Through the string of food safety scares that has rocked Japanese society since the early 2000s, conflicts between the traditional notion of socially acceptable risk and the idea of a science-based risk analysis approach have surfaced in the food safety arena. Elites, including government officials and those members of scientific communities who support the science-based risk analysis approach, have become responsible for communicating seemingly contradictory ideas such as "food in Japan is safe" and "there is no such thing as zero risk with food." This communication logjam has resulted in confusion and created public distrust of both government and scientific experts. Against this backdrop, this paper aims to examine the struggles and challenges faced by government officials in explaining and practicing policies that pertain to highly controversial food safety issues. The primary data used for illuminating the discourses is the official minutes of governmental committees including the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Committee and the Consumer Commission. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Collet C.,International Christian University
Journal of Sports Sciences | Year: 2013

Possession is thought of as central to success in modern football, but questions remain about its impact on positive team outcomes (Bate, 1988; Hughes & Franks, 2005; Pollard & Reep, 1997; Stanhope, 2001). Recent studies (e.g. Bloomfield, Polman, & O'Donoghue, 2005; Carling, Williams, & Reilly, 2005; James, Mellallieu, & Holley, 2002; Jones, James, & Mellalieu, 2004; Lago, 2009; Lago & Martin, 2007; Lago-Peñas & Dellal, 2010; Lago-Peñas, Lago-Ballesteros, Dellal, & Gómez, 2010; Taylor, Mellalieu, & James, 2005; Tucker, Mellalieu, James, & Taylor, 2005) that have examined these questions have often been constrained by an exclusive focus on English or Spanish domestic play. Using data from five European leagues, UEFA and FIFA tournaments, the study found that while possession time and passing predicted aggregated team success in domestic league play, both variables were poor predictors at the individual match level once team quality and home advantage were accounted for. In league play, the effect of greater possession was consistently negative; in the Champions League, it had virtually no impact. In national team tournaments, possession failed to reach significance when offensive factors were accounted for. Much of the success behind the 'possession game' was thus a function of elite teams confined in geographic and competitive space. That ball hegemony was not consistently tied to success suggests that a nuanced approach to possession is needed to account for variant strategic environments (e.g. James et al., 2002) and compels match analysts to re-examine the metric's overall value. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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