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Tang P.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Tang P.,International Center on Space Technology for Natural and Cultural Heritage under the Auspices of UNESCO | Chen F.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Chen F.,International Center on Space Technology for Natural and Cultural Heritage under the Auspices of UNESCO | And 3 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2016

Cultural heritage sites are rare and irreplaceable wealth of human civilization. The majority of them are becoming unstable due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. High-precision, efficient deformation monitoring facilitates the early recognition of potential risks and enables preventive diagnosis of heritage sites. In this study, an advanced Multi-Temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (MTInSAR) approach was developed by jointly analyzing Persistent Scatterers (PSs) and Distributed Scatterers (DSs) using high-resolution SAR images. Taking the World Heritage Site of Summer Palace in Beijing as the experimental site, deformation resulting from PSs/DSs showed that overall the site was generally stable except for specific areas and/or monuments. Urbanization (construction and demolition) triggered new subsidence in the vicinity of East and South Gate of the site. Slight to moderate (mm/cm-level) instabilities of ruins and monuments on Longevity Hill were detected, perhaps due to a combination of destructive anthropogenic activities and long-term natural decay. Subsidence was also detected along the Kunming Lakeside and was probably attributable to variation of the groundwater level, excessive visitor numbers as well as lack of maintenance. This study presents the potential of the MTInSAR approach for the monitoring and conservation of cultural heritage sites. © 2016 by the authors.


Chen F.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Chen F.,International Center on Space Technology for Natural and Cultural Heritage under the Auspices of UNESCO | Lin H.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Hu X.,Chinese University of Hong Kong
Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Owing to the development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) platforms, and in particular the increase in the availability of multi-source (multi-band and multi-resolution) data, it is now feasible to design a surface displacement monitoring application using multi-temporal SAR interferometry (MT-InSAR). Landslides have high socio-economic impacts in many countries because of potential geo-hazards and heavy casualties. In this study, taking into account the merits of ALOS PALSAR (L-band, good coherence preservation) and TerraSAR (X-band, high resolution and short revisit times) data, we applied an improved small baseline InSAR (SB-InSAR) with 3-D phase unwrapping approach, to monitor slope superficial displacement in Hong Kong, China, a mountainous subtropical zone city influenced by over-urbanization and heavy monsoonal rains. Results revealed that the synergistic use of PALSAR and TerraSAR data produces different outcomes in relation to data reliability and spatial-temporal resolution, and hence could be of significant value for a comprehensive understanding and monitoring of unstable slopes.©2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Chen F.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Chen F.,International Center on Space Technology for Natural and Cultural Heritage under the Auspices of UNESCO | Masini N.,National Research Council Italy | Yang R.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | And 4 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

With the development of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in terms of multi-band, multi-polarization and high-resolution data, space radar remote sensing for archaeology has become a potential field for research. Nevertheless, the archaeological detection capability of this technology has so far not been fully assessed. This paper is a pioneering effort to assess the potential of satellite SAR X-band data in the detection of archaeological marks. We focus on the results obtained from a collaborative contribution jointly carried out by archaeologists and remote sensing experts in order to test the use of COSMO-SkyMed data in different contexts and environmental conditions. The methodological approaches we adopted are based on two different feature-enhancement procedures: (i) multi-temporal analysis performed to reduce noise and highlight archaeological marks; (ii) single-date analysis to assess the ability of the single SAR scene to detect archaeological features like with optical remote sensing. Results from multi-temporal data analysis, conducted using 40 scenes from COSMO-SkyMed X-band Stripmap data (27 February to 17 October 2013), enable us to detect unknown archaeological crop, soil, and shadow marks representing Luoyang city, dating from the Eastern-Han to Northern-Wei Dynasties. Single-date analyses were conducted using COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight scenes acquired for Sabratha (Libya) and Metapontum (southern Italy). These case studies were selected because they are characterized by diverse superficial conditions (desert and Mediterranean area) and archaeological marks (crop, soil and shadow). The results we obtained for both of them show that even a single SAR X-band acquisition is a feasible and effective approach for archaeological prospection. Overall, the methodological approach adopted demonstrated that both multi-temporal and single-date analysis are suitable for the enhancement of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental features. © 2014 by the authors.


Tang P.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Tang P.,International Center on Space Technology for Natural and Cultural Heritage under the Auspices of UNESCO | Chen F.,CAS Institute of Remote Sensing | Chen F.,International Center on Space Technology for Natural and Cultural Heritage under the Auspices of UNESCO | And 6 more authors.
Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

The region near Dujiangyan City and Wenchuan County, Sichuan China, including significant giant panda habitats, was severely impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake. Largearea landslides occurred and seriously threatened the lives of people and giant pandas. In this paper, we report the development of an enhanced multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR) methodology to monitor potential post-seismic landslides by analyzing coherent scatterers (CS) and distributed scatterers (DS) points extracted from multi-temporal L-band ALOS/PALSAR data in an integrated manner. Through the integration of phase optimization and mitigation of the orbit and topography-related phase errors, surface deformations in the study area were derived: the rates in the line of sight (LOS) direction ranged from -7 to 1.5 cm/a. Dozens of potential landslides, distributed mainly along the Minjiang River, Longmenshan Fault, and in other the high-altitude areas were detected. These findings matched the distribution of previous landslides. InSAR-derived results demonstrated that some previous landslides were still active; many unstable slopes have developed, and there are significant probabilities of future massive failures. The impact of landslides on the giant panda habitat, however ranged from low to moderate, would continue to be a concern for conservationists for some time in the future. © 2015 by the authors.

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