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Galeano C.H.,U-Systems | Fernandez A.C.,Sugarbeet and Bean Research Unit | Franco-Herrera N.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | Cichy K.A.,Sugarbeet and Bean Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364×BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364×G19833 (DG) and BAT93×JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. © 2011 Galeano et al.

Cordoba J.M.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | Chavarro C.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | Schlueter J.A.,Purdue University | Schlueter J.A.,University of North Carolina at Charlotte | And 3 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2010

Background: Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important legume for direct human consumption and the goal of this study was to integrate a recently constructed physical map for the species with a microsatellite based genetic map using a BAC library from the genotype G19833 and the recombinant inbred line population DOR364 × G19833.Results: We searched for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in the 89,017 BAC-end sequences (BES) from the physical map and genetically mapped any polymorphic BES-SSRs onto the genetic map. Among the BES it was possible to identify 623 contig-linked SSRs, most of which were highly AT-rich. A subgroup of 230 di-nucleotide and tri-nucleotide based SSR primer pairs from these BACs was tested on the mapping parents with 176 single copy loci and 114 found to be polymorphic markers. Of these, 99 were successfully integrated into the genetic map. The 99 linkages between the genetic and physical maps corresponded to an equal number of contigs containing a total of 5,055 BAC clones.Conclusions: Class II microsatellites were more common in the BES than longer class I microsatellites. Both types of markers proved to be valuable for linking BAC clones to the genetic map and were successfully placed across all 11 linkage groups. The integration of common bean physical and genetic maps is an important part of comparative genome analysis and a prelude to positional cloning of agronomically important genes for this crop. © 2010 Córdoba et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Blair M.W.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | Blair M.W.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture | Galeano C.H.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | Tovar E.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | And 5 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Drought is a major constraint to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production, especially in developing countries where irrigation for the crop is infrequent. The Mesoamerican genepool is the most widely grown subdivision of common beans that include small red, small cream and black seeded varieties. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable genetic map for a Mesoamerican × Mesoamerican drought tolerant × susceptible cross and to use this map to analyze the inheritance of yield traits under drought and fully irrigated conditions over 3 years of experiments. The source of drought tolerance used in the cross was the cream-seeded advanced line BAT477 crossed with the small red variety DOR364 and the population was made up of recombinant inbred lines in the F5 generation. Quantitative trait loci were detected by composite interval mapping for the traits of overall seed yield, yield per day, 100 seed weight, days to flowering and days to maturity for each field environment consisting of two treatments (irrigated and rainfed) and lattice design experiments with three repetitions for a total of six environments. The genetic map based on amplified fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers was anchored with 60 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and had a total map length of 1,087.5 cM across 11 linkage groups covering the whole common bean genome with saturation of one marker every 5.9 cM. Gaps for the genetic map existed on linkage groups b03, b09 and b11 but overall there were only nine gaps larger than 15 cM. All traits were inherited quantitatively, with the greatest number for seed weight followed by yield per day, yield per se, days to flowering and days to maturity. The relevance of these results for breeding common beans is discussed in particular in the light of crop improvement for drought tolerance in the Mesoamerican genepool. © 2010 The Author(s).

Cortes A.J.,Uppsala University | Fernandez A.C.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Soler T.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | Franco-Herrera N.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Bean Project | And 2 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2012

Background: In common bean, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are an underestimated source of gene-based markers such as insertion-deletions (Indels) or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, due to the nature of these conserved sequences, detection of markers is difficult and portrays low levels of polymorphism. Therefore, development of intron-spanning EST-SNP markers can be a valuable resource for genetic experiments such as genetic mapping and association studies.Results: In this study, a total of 313 new gene-based markers were developed at target genes. Intronic variation was deeply explored in order to capture more polymorphism. Introns were putatively identified after comparing the common bean ESTs with the soybean genome, and the primers were designed over intron-flanking regions. The intronic regions were evaluated for parental polymorphisms using the single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique and Sequenom MassARRAY system. A total of 53 new marker loci were placed on an integrated molecular map in the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. The new linkage map was used to build a consensus map, merging the linkage maps of the BAT93 × JALO EEP558 and DOR364 × BAT477 populations. A total of 1,060 markers were mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. As a second application of the generated resource, a diversity panel with 93 genotypes was evaluated with 173 SNP markers using the MassARRAY-platform and KASPar technology. These results were coupled with previous SSR evaluations and drought tolerance assays carried out on the same individuals. This agglomerative dataset was examined, in order to discover marker-trait associations, using general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM). Some significant associations with yield components were identified, and were consistent with previous findings.Conclusions: In short, this study illustrates the power of intron-based markers for linkage and association mapping in common bean. The utility of these markers is discussed in relation with the usefulness of microsatellites, the molecular markers by excellence in this crop. © 2012 Galeano et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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