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Pan H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Asia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China). Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9%of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops. © 2015 Pan et al.


Pan H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Asia
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

The mirid bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a major pest of cotton, fruit trees, and many other crops in China. While previous trials have found relatively low infestation levels of A.lucorum in fields treated with the acaricide dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), its mode of action has not been determined. In this study, we assessed the insecticidal and repellent action of DMDS against A.lucorum under laboratory and field conditions. DMDS did not cause mortality of A.lucorum adults or nymphs at concentrations of 10.6 and 170.9mga.i./1. In Y-tube olfactometer tests, both male and female A.lucorum adults preferred clean air over DMDS odors. In choice and no-choice cage trials, feeding damage and the number of A.lucorum eggs were lower on mungbean plants treated with DMDS than on control plants. Under field conditions, adult A.lucorum density was lower in DMDS-treated mungbean and cotton fields than in untreated fields, and this effect lasted 6d, but nymph populations were not affected. Under field conditions, adult A.lucorum were repelled at a distance of up to 6m from DMDS-sprayed cotton plants for 6d after application. This study demonstrates the non-lethal repellent action of DMDS against adult A.lucorum and suggests its potential inclusion in integrated pest management (IPM) schemes. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Pan H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Asia
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev), Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze) and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012), we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species) and A. lineolatus (7 species). Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.), whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management. © 2013 Pan et al.


Pan H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wyckhuys K.A.G.,International Center for Tropical Agriculture Asia | Wu K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is one of the most important herbivores in a broad range of cultivated plants, including cotton, cereals, vegetables, and fruit crops in China. In this manuscript, we report on a 6-year long study in which (adult) A. lucorum abundance was recorded on 174 plant species from 39 families from early July to mid-September. Through the study period per year, the proportion of flowering plants exploited by adult A. lucorum was significantly greater than that of non-flowering plants. For a given plant species, A. lucorum adults reached peak abundance at the flowering stage, when the plant had the greatest attraction to the adults. More specifically, mean adult abundance on 26 species of major host plants and their relative standard attraction were 10.3-28.9 times and 9.3-19.5 times higher at flowering stage than during non-flowering periods, respectively. Among all the tested species, A. lucorum adults switched food plants according to the succession of flowering plant species. In early July, A. lucorum adults preferred some plant species in bloom, such as Vigna radiata, Gossypium hirsutum, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium; since late July, adults dispersed into other flowering hosts (e.g. Ricinus communis, Impatiens balsamina, Humulus scandens, Ocimum basilicum, Agastache rugosus and Coriandrum sativum); in early September, they largely migrated to flowering Artemisia spp. (e.g. A. argyi, A. lavandulaefolia, A. annua and A. scoparia). Our findings underscore the important role of flowering plays in the population dynamics and inter-plant migration of this mirid bug. Also, our work helps understand evolutionary aspects of host plant use in polyphagous insects such as A. lucorum, and provides baseline information for the development of sustainable management strategies of this key agricultural pest. © 2013 Pan et al.


Lin K.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wan P.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Yang Y.,Yangzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Pest Science | Year: 2014

Trap cropping is a useful tool in sustainable pest management. Trap crops usually target a single species or genus of insect pests. In this study, we assessed the potential of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) as a trap crop for two distant insect species, Bemisia tabaci and Sylepta derogata in Chinese cotton fields from 2006 to 2009. Under laboratory conditions, velvetleaf, a known trap plant of B. tabaci, was preferred over cotton by S. derogata for oviposition, and the subsequent offspring had greater survival and faster development on velvetleaf than cotton. Field-plot trials showed that population densities of S. derogata were 46-110 times greater on velvetleaf than on cotton, respectively. Commercial field trials indicated that S. derogata density and leaf damage were 79-90 % and 83-94 % lower in cotton fields inter-planted with sprayed velvetleaf strips than without them, respectively; whereas densities of B. tabaci were 21-51 % lower in fields with sprayed velvetleaf strips than in those without. At >10 m from velvetleaf strips, densities of B. tabaci and S. derogata in cotton gradually increased. Velvetleaf strips were an effective trap crop for simultaneous management of B. tabaci and S. derogata in cotton fields. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wu H.-H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu H.-H.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Huang M.-S.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | Wan P.,Hubei Academy of Agricultural science | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2013

The pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) is one of the most serious lepidopteran pests of cotton in the world. This pest invaded China at the onset of the 20th century, possibly through repeated introductions from several different locations worldwide. In this paper, we describe different behavioral parameters of this Hubei P. gossypiella strain under laboratory and field conditions. Using an infra-red video recorder, we observed (nocturnal) emergence, flight and mating activities, and oviposition patterns. Moth emergence started from 13:00 and continued up till 23:00. Under laboratory and field conditions, 2-7-d-old moths initiated flight around sunset, peaked 50 min later and gradually declined until 04:00. Although mating started immediately after darkness (i.e., 20:00), mating behavior was most intense from 23:00 to 03:40. Oviposition also showed distinct time-related patterns, with approx. 70% eggs laid between 20:00 and 22:00. In the studies of the relationship between flight and oviposition, the duration of flight had an effect on oviposition. The 1-d-old moths flown for 6 and 12 h began oviposition earlier than the unflown ones, and the 6-h flight had no effect on the egg production. However, the longevity of the flown moths was shortened after flight. In addition, the peaks of oviposition for the flown moths were advanced 2-3 d. The age when the moths flied affected the oviposition of adult moths. The earlier the moths started to fly after emergence, the greater the fecundity they had. The average egg production of moths flown for 24 h was less than that of non-flown moths which were of the same age. Both flight and delay in mating could advance the oviposition peak. Our study provides detailed insights in nocturnal activities and the reproductive biology of local P. gossypiella populations, which could be employed to fine-tune current pest management programs in China. © 2013 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.


PubMed | USDA ARS European Biological Control Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and International Center for Tropical Agriculture Asia
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2015

Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton and fruit trees in China. The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally. In this study, we examine whether flower preference of its adults is mediated by plant volatiles, and which volatile compositions play an important role in attracting them. In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants. Although the adults responded to all seven synthetic plant volatiles in electroantennography tests, only four (m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) elicited positive behavioral responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The adults were strongly attracted to these four active volatiles in multi-year laboratory and field trials. Our results suggest that these four fragrant volatiles, which are emitted in greater amounts once plants begin to flower, mediate A. lucorums preference to flowering host plants. We proved that the use of commonly occurring plant volatiles to recognize a large range of plant species can facilitate host selection and preference of polyphagous insect herbivore.


PubMed | International Center for Tropical Agriculture Asia and Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

In herbivorous insects, host plant switching is commonly observed and plays an important role in their annual life cycle. However, much remains to be learned about seasonal host switching of various pestiferous arthropods under natural conditions. From 2006 until 2012, we assessed Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dr) host plant use in successive spring, summer and winter seasons at one single location (Langfang, China). Data were used to quantify changes in host plant breadth and host fidelity between seasons. Host fidelity of A. lucorum differed between seasons, with 87.9% of spring hosts also used in the summer and 36.1% of summer hosts used in winter. In contrast, as little as 25.6% host plant species were shared between winter and spring. Annual herbaceous plants are most often used for overwintering, while perennial woody plants are relatively important for initial population build-up in the spring. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of evolutionary interactions between A. lucorum and its host plants and lays the groundwork for the design of population management strategies for this important pest in myriad crops.

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