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Tipping A.V.,International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development
Marine Policy | Year: 2016

Governments have tried for many years to negotiate rules to limit fisheries subsidies in the World Trade Organisation (WTO). Meanwhile, Parties to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) trade agreement have agreed to prohibit subsidies to particular kinds of fishing activity. Recent proposals in the WTO suggest a degree of support for a similar narrow prohibition. This paper uses evidence in the literature on the impact of subsidies on fish stocks, and from the WTO negotiations, to propose how disciplines on fisheries subsidies could be expanded, building on these first steps by the members of the TPP. The impact of subsidies on fishers' incentives and fish stocks depends on several factors, but many subsidies can tend to increase fishing capacity and effort beyond sustainable levels. Options for expanded disciplines include prioritising the prohibition of those subsidies that are most likely to be harmful to fisheries resources. An "actionable" category for other harmful subsidies could also be prioritised, as well as a set of exceptions for expenditures that are likely to be beneficial in the sense that they help to protect the environment or support poverty reduction. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Rubini L.,Institute of European Law | Jegou I.,International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development
Transnational Environmental Law | Year: 2012

This article investigates the environmental and economic impact of the free allocation of emissions allowances in Emissions Trading Schemes (ETSs) as well as its compatibility with trade law. Free allocation can facilitate the industry's gradual adjustment to an ETS and hence boost its acceptability. At the same time, however, the article shows that the economic and environmental benefits of free allocation are debatable. Moreover, the practice of free allocation possibly contravenes WTO law. The conclusion that free allowances may constitute an objectionable subsidy under WTO subsidy disciplines raises questions of law reform. Should the ETS be reformed to fit conventional trade imperatives, or should trade law be rethought so as to be responsive to contemporary environmental protection strategies? The article argues that, considering the questionable benefits of free allocation, any adjustment to trade law should be narrow and temporary. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2012.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.6.1-5 | Award Amount: 3.57M | Year: 2013

Climate change mitigation now focus on production, where upward drivers of GHG emissions come from consumption. Demand side oriented policies hence can complement domestic GHG reduction efforts. The core aim of this project is to 1. Stimulate innovative demand side oriented climate policies by improved shared insight in consumption emissions. 2. Realize a more effective policy mix for achieving the objectives of the EU policy packages (e.g. Low carbon economy roadmap) There are significant questions about consumption based carbon accounting (CBCA) systems (Gap 1: CBCA reliability) and demand side policies (effectiveness (Gap 2) and societal impacts (Gap 3)). Stakeholders hence can easily question their added value (Gap 4). Our project will overcome this problem via the following responses 1. (WP4). Comparing the major CBCA databases (EXIOBASE, WIOD, GTAP, EORA), identifying key factors causing uncertainty, assessing upward drivers, resulting in CBCA that can be implemented by formal players in the climate community (UNFCCC, IEA, others) 2. (WP5 and WP6). Providing an in-depth analysis of the feasibilities of consumption based and trade related policies, assessing their effectiveness, and compatibility with e.g. WTO rules (WP5). Specific case studies will zoom in on practical improvement options and implications for specific sectors (WP6) 3. (WP7). Improving some of the most ambitious global economic models, E3ME/E3MG, EXIOMOD and IPTSs FIDELIO relation to point 1 so that they capture side-effects and rebound effects, impacts on trade, investment etc. of consumption based policies 4. (WP8 and WP2). Creating an implementation roadmap for consumption based accounts and policies (WP8) endorsed by a critical mass of stakeholders via policy-science brokerage activities (WP2) The project is complemented by Management (WP1) and an inception phase (WP3) and executed by a group of the most renowned institutes in CBCA, economic modeling and climate policy.

Bellmann C.,International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development | Tipping A.,International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development | Sumaila U.R.,University of British Columbia
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

Global trade in fishery products plays a significant role in shaping the harvesting and use of fish, and therefore will be an important part of a transition to sustainable fisheries. This article provides an overview of global trade flows in fish and fishery products as well as future trends affecting the sector. It then moves on to review trade policy measures applied in major producing and importing countries, including tariff, non-tariff measures, and fisheries subsidies. It ends with an overview of recent developments in international frameworks governing trade in fish and fishery products at the global, regional and national levels. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Sumaila U.R.,University of British Columbia | Bellmann C.,International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development | Tipping A.,International Center for Trade and Sustainable Development
Marine Policy | Year: 2016

This paper surveys the current state and major trends in global fisheries; the environmental and social dimensions of fisheries; and explains how the international community has tried to meet the policy challenges associated with oceans and fisheries. The ocean and the freshwater ecosystems of the world make significant contributions to people's well-being via the many vital social and environmental services they provide (for example, food and nutrition, employment and incomes, carbon cycling and sequestration). The impact that the increase in fishing since the 1950s has had on wild fish stocks, and the significant increase in aquaculture production in the 20th century, have resulted in severe environmental impacts. This has significant effects on marine ecosystems and the health of oceans. The erosion of the resource undermines communities' long-term interests, including food security, employment, and income. Attempts by the global community to address challenges of sustainable production by improving the governance and management of fisheries resources range from national management of fisheries resources, to regional fisheries management organisations (RFMOs) for international fisheries stocks. These attempts have not always successfully met the challenge of balancing current and future use of fisheries. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

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