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Sun T.,Lanzhou University | Sun T.,CAS Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology | Sun T.,International Center for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management | Long R.J.,International Center for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of lipid oxidation in the meat of free-range broilers feeding on grasshoppers in alpine rangeland on the Tibetan Plateau. Eighty 28-d-old Qinjiaoma male broilers were introduced into a rangeland where there was a dense population of grasshoppers (PB). Control birds were reared under intensive conditions and given a maize-soybean diet. At 91 d of age, 24 birds from each treatment were slaughtered. Fresh breast and thigh meats were packaged and refrigerated for determination. The results indicate that rearing conditions, which included a diet rich in grasshoppers for PB broilers, significantly (P < 0.05) affected α-tocopherol content, total iron, heme iron, and nonheme iron content in the muscle of both the breast and leg. Rearing system and diet also had an important effect on antioxidant activity and lipid oxidation during refrigerated storage. This influence changed with storage time between different tissues. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in the muscle of chicken breasts or legs from PB broilers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those from the controls, but no significant (P > 0.05) differences were found for the activities of catalase between the PB broilers and the controls. In conclusion, the meat in free-range broilers feeding on grasshoppers has more antioxidative potential and longer storage life. © 2012 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Yang T.,Lanzhou University | Yang T.,International Center for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management | Ding L.,International Center for Tibetan Plateau Ecosystem Management | Ding L.,Lanzhou University | And 7 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2016

The Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County and Sunan Yugu Autonomous County, both located in the Qilian Mountains (Gansu Province), were selected for comparison of the livestock production efficiency between two types of ownership of rangeland. Using the snowball sampling method, 15 households were selected in each county. In the Sunan County, the use of the pasture is allocated to households. Each household has its pastures for the summer, autumn, and winter. In the Tianzhu County, summer and autumn pastures are communal (common). Their use is collective on the village scale. Only the crop land for forage production and winter pastures are allocated to households. The research area, a part of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, has a fragile grassland ecosystem, and livestock is the main source of income for local residents. Grazing is one of the causes of grassland degradation, and the difference in ownership led to different grazing behavior. Grazing activities overseen by herdsmen are determined by grassland ownership, and at the same time, these people are active in livestock production decisions. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to better understand and compare the land status in the two counties, to assess the resulting effects on the livestock productivity in terms of efficiency and to define new kinds of land ownership adapted to the local context. During this research, input and output data within each farm of the sample area were fully collected, such as the size of a pasture, supplementary feed, the number of breeding females, family labor, and the income from selling livestock, wool, milk, and other products. The DEA model (the model of data envelopment analysis) was used to analyze the collected data and to assess livestock production efficiency under different types of land ownership. The following are main conclusions- (1) The average pure technological efficiency of households in the Tianzhu County was higher than that in the Sunan County (0.96 > 0.91), and so was the average scale efficiency (0.86 > 0.70), which resulted in the higher average livestock production efficiency of households in the Tianzhu County than in the Sunan County (0.83 > 0.63; P < 0.05). (2) The percentage of households whose comprehensive efficiency was <0.5 in the Tianzhu County was greater than that in the Sunan County (16.7% > 10%), and so was the percentage of households whose comprehensive efficiency was >0.7 (23.4% > 10%). Thus, the distribution of efficiency was also better in the Tianzhu County. (3) According to these results (excluding the impact of the scale efficiency), redundant input is the main reason for households' low livestock production efficiency. The factors such as feed supplements, the number of breeding females, size of pasture, and family labor have different effects, from strong to weak, on the efficiency of livestock production. In conclusion, status of the rangeland ownership directly affects the livestock production efficiency. The collective use/management is better for improving production efficiency. These results can serve as a reference for local governance in order to develop a more rational system of rangeland ownership, to implement sustainable economic development, and to preserve the ecological environment as well. © 2016, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved. Source

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